Silicon Technologies: Ion Implantation and Thermal Treatment [NOOK Book]

Overview

The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion.
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Silicon Technologies: Ion Implantation and Thermal Treatment

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Overview

The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion.
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118601143
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 5/10/2013
  • Series: ISTE
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • File size: 6 MB

Table of Contents

Preface Annie Baudrant xi

Chapter 1 Silicon and Silicon Carbide Oxidation Jean-Jacques Ganem Isabelle Trimaille 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Overview of the various oxidation techniques 3

1.2.1 General information 3

1.2.2 Most frequently used methods in the semiconductor industry 4

1.2.3 Other methods 8

1.3 Some physical properties of silica 17

1.3.1 The silica structure 17

1.3.2 Three useful parameters of silica 21

1.3.3 Transport properties in silica 22

1.4 Equations of atomic transport during oxidation 28

1.4.1 Transport equations in the general case 29

1.4.2 First approximation: C(x) varies slowly with the depth x 30

1.4.3 Second approximation: $$$(x) varies slowly with the depth x 33

1.4.4 Applications of the transport equations to thermal and anodic oxidation 34

1.5 Is it possible to identify the transport mechanisms taking place during oxidation? 35

1.5.1 Identification using isotopic labeling techniques 35

1.5.2 Important results for the thermal oxidation of silicon under dry 02 41

1.5.3 Important results for wet thermal oxidation 45

1.5.4 Conclusions on me atomic transport mechanisms during silicon thermal oxidation 45

1.5.5 Experimental results and conclusions on the transport mechanisms during the anodic oxidation of silicon 46

1.5.6 Important experimental results from dry SiC thermal oxidation 47

1.6 Transport equations in the case of thermal oxidation 48

1.6.1 General information on flux and on growth kinetics 48

1.6.2 Flux calculation for neutral mobile species 49

1.6.3 FIux calculation for ion mobile species 49

1.7 Deal and Grove theory of thermal oxidation 53

1.7.1 Flux calculation 53

1.7.2 Growth kinetics equations 57

1.7.3 Remarks on the fluctuations of the oxidation constants kP and kL 59

1.7.4 Determination of the oxidation parameters from experimental results 59

1.7.5 Confrontation of the Deal and Grove theory with experimental results 61

1.7.6 Conclusions on the Deal and Grove theory 66

1.8 Theory of thermal oxidation under water vapor of silicon 67

1.8.1 Concentration profiles expected for H2O 67

1.8.2 Concentration profiles expected for theOH groups 68

1.8.3 Concentration profiles expected for H2 68

1.8.4 Concentration profiles expected for H 69

1.8.5 Comparison of the expected and the experimental profiles 71

1.8.6 Wolters theory 71

1.9 Kinetics of growth in O2 for oxide films < 30 nm 72

1.9.1 Introduction 72

1.9.2 Oxidation models of thin films 78

1.9.3 Case of ultra-thin films (< 5 nm) 80

1.9.4 On line simulator 80

1.9.5 Kinetics and models of SiC oxidation 81

1.10 Fluctuations of the oxidation constants under experimental conditions 84

1.10.1 Role of the pressure 84

1.10.2 Roleof the temperature 85

1.10.3 Role of the crystal direction 88

1.10.4 Role of doping 91

1.11 Conclusion 92

1.12 Bibliography 92

Chapter 2 Ion Implantation Jean-Jacques Grob 103

2.1 Introduction 103

2.2 Ion implanters 105

2.2.1 General description 105

2.2.2 Ion sources 106

2.2.3 Mass analysis and beam optics 107

2.2.4 Current measurement 108

2.2.5 Production throughput, temperature control and charge effects 109

2.3 Ion range 111

2.3.1 Binary collision and stopping powe 111

2.3.2 Profile of the implanted ions 115

2.3.3 Backscattering, surface sputter and channeling 119

2.3.4 Implantation through a mask 122

2.4 Creation and healing of the defects 124

2.4.1 Primary collision and cascade 124

2.4.2 Point defects 127

2.4.3 Accumulation of damages, amorphization 128

2.4.4 Damage healing and dopant activation 132

2.5 Applications in traditional technologies and new tendencies 136

2.5.1 Common implantations 137

2.5.2 Other applications and new tendencies 140

2.6 Conclusion 147

2.7 Bibliography 147

Chapter 3 Dopant Diffusion: Modeling and Technological ChallengesDaniel Mathiot 155

3.1 Introduction 155

3.2 Diffusion in solids 157

3.2.1 General information 157

3.2.2 Elementary mechanisms 163

3.2.3 Semiconductor specificities 172

3.3 Dopant diffusion in single-crystal silicon 176

3.3.1 Predeposition methods 176

3.3.2 Main experimental observations 178

3.3.3 Modeling 184

3.4 Examples of associated engineering problems 191

3.4.1 Redistribution of the implanted dopants: transient enhanced diffusion 191

3.4.2 Engineering of ultra-thin junctions 193

3.4.3 Reverse short channel effect 195

3.5 Dopant diffusion in germanium 196

3.5.1 Thermal diffusion process 197

3.5.2 Implanted dopants and junctions engineering 199

3.6 Conclusion 201

3.7 Bibliography 201

Chapter 4 Epitaxy of Strained Si/Sil-x Gex Heterostructures Jean-Michel Hartmann 209

4.1 Introduction 209

4.1.1 General introduction 209

4.1.2 Chemical vapor deposition from the beginning 210

4.1.3 The Epi Centura epitaxy tool 216

4.1.4 Some general concepts of epitaxy 219

4.2 Engineering of the pMOSFET transistor channel using pseudomorphic SiGe layers 222

4.2.1 Introduction 222

4.2.2 Growth kinetics of Si and SiGe in chlorinated chemistry 224

4.2.3 Transposition on patterned substrates 229

4.2.4 pMOS transistors incorporating SiGe layers 231

4.3 Engineering of the nMOSFET transistor channel using pseudomorphic Si1-y Cy layers; SiGeC diffusion barriers 233

4.3.1 Introduction 233

4.3.2 Incorporation of C in Si and SiGe 235

4.3.3 Si/Si1-y Cy/Si stacks for nMOS transistors 238

4.3.4 nMOS transistors incorporating Si1_yCy layers or SiGeC diffusion barriers 241

4.4 Epitaxy of Si raised sources and drains on ultra-thin SOI substrates 243

4.4.1 Introduction 243

4.4.2 Problems encountered on ultra-thin SOI substrates 245

4.4.3 Method developed in response 246

4.5 Epitaxy of recessed and raised SiGe: B sources and drains on ultra-thin SOI and SON substrates 248

4.5.1 Introduction 248

4.5.2 Growth kinetics and boron doping of SiGe in chlorinated chemistry 249

4.5.3 Recessed and raised SiGe: B sources and drains on FD-SOI and SON substrates 251

4.6 Virtual SiGe substrates: fabrication of sSOI substrates and of dual c-Ge / t-Si channels 253

4.6.1 Introduction 253

4.6.2 Growth and structural properties of virtual SiGe substrates 255

4.6.3 Growth and structural properties of tensily-strained Si layers on SiGe virtual substrates 262

4.6.4 Fabrication of sSOI and XsSOI substrates & transport properties 267

4.6.5 c-Ge/t-Si dual channels on Si0.5Ge0.5 virtual substrates 271

4.7 Thin or thick layers of pure Ge on Si for nano and opto-electronics 275

4.7.1 Introduction 275

4.7.2 Structural properties of thick layers of Ge on Si (001) and of GeOI 276

4.7.3 Optical and transport properties of thick Ge layers on Si (001) and of GeOI substrates 283

4.7.4 Structural and optical properties of Ge islands on Si (001) 288

4.8 Devices based on sacrificiallayers of SiGe 292

4.8.1 Introduction 292

4.8.2 Selective HC1 etching of SiGe selectively compared to Si 293

4.8.3 Localized SOI devices and SON 297

4.8.4 Devices based on multi-wires and on multi-channels 301

4.9 Conclusions and prospects 311

4.9.1 General conclusion 311

4.9.2 Prospects 313

4.10 Bibliography 317

List of Authors 333

Index 335

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