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This long-awaited work explores the place of kokugaku (rendered here as "nativism") during Japan's Tokugawa period. Kokugaku, the sense of a distinct and sacred Japanese identity, appeared in the eighteenth century in reaction to the pervasive influence of Chinese culture on Japan. Against this influence, nativists sought a Japanese sense of difference grounded in folk tradition, agricultural values, and ancient Japanese religion. H. D. Harootunian treats nativism as a discourse and shows how it functioned ideologically in Tokugawa Japan.
Acknowledgments Abbreviations Prologue: Historians' Discourse and the Problem of Nativism
1. Discourse/Ideology: Language/Labor The Language of Ideology The Problematic of Discourse The Ideology of Language
2. Archaism I: The Origin of Discourse Language and the Question of Form and Content The Poetry of Things Inventing the Daily Life
3. Archaism II: The Discourse on Origins The Politics of Poetics The Prose of the World The Chronotope of Collective Time
4. Routinizing the Ancient Way Religion and the Problem of Routinization Sender and Receiver: Constituting a Subject for Discourse Message: The Work of Worship
5. Ruralization I: Figure and Fulfillment Historical Conjuncture Classifying the Cosmos The Rhetoric of Place: Shrine and Village Cosmologizing Agriculture: The Origins of Wealth The Worship of Work
6. Ruralization II: Act and Authority Authority for Action Entrustment and Enabling Embodying Habitus Part for Whole
7. Knowledge, Interest, and the Cultural Order Hermeneutics and History
"Learning the Customs of Folk"
Poetic Knowledge and Politics
8. Accomplices of Restoration Figures of Restoration Between Religion and Polity The Community of Silence Epilogue: Native Knowledge and the Production of a Modern "Japanese Ideology"