THINK Critically / Edition 2

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THINK Currency. THINK Relevancy. THINK Critically.

THINK Critically is a cutting-edge, self-reflective guide for improving critical thinking skills through careful analysis, reasoned inference, and thoughtful evaluation of contemporary culture and ideas.

An engaging visual design developed with extensive student feedback and 15-page chapters makes THINK Critically the textbook your students will actually read. It delivers the core concepts of critical thinking in a way they can easily understand. Additionally, engaging examples and masterful exercises help students learn to clarify ideas, analyze arguments, and evaluate reasoning.

A better teaching and learning experience
This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience–for you and your students. Here’s how:

  • Personalize Learning — The new MyThinkingLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals.
  • Improve Critical Thinking — “Think Critically” exercises are positioned throughout each chapter to help students build skills.
  • Engage Students — In-text features include “Map It Out” sections, video clips, and Web-based multimedia examples.
  • Support Instructors — Four new optional chapters are available through the Pearson Custom Library, and a comprehensive supplements package is available to be packaged with this text.

Note: MyThinkingLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MyThinkingLab, please visit: or you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MyThinkingLab (at no additional cost).

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205490981
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/6/2012
  • Series: MyThinkingLab Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 360
  • Sales rank: 224,370
  • Product dimensions: 10.82 (w) x 8.98 (h) x 0.56 (d)

Meet the Author

Peter A. Facione, PhD, has dedicated himself to helping people build their critical thinking to become better problem solvers and decisions makers. He does this work not only to help individuals and groups achieve their own goals, but also for the sake of our freedom and democracy. Facione draws on experience as a teacher, consultant, business entrepreneur, university dean, grandfather, husband, musician, and sports enthusiast. Now he is taking his message about the importance of critical thinking directly to students through Think Critically.

“I’ve paid very close attention to the way people make decisions since I was 13 years old,” says Facione. “Some people were good at solving problems and making decisions; others were not. I have always felt driven to figure out how to tell which were which.” He says that this led him as an undergraduate and later as a professor to study psychology, philosophy, logic, statistics, and information systems as he searched for how our beliefs, values, thinking skills, and habits of mind connect with the decisions we make, particularly in contexts of risk and uncertainty.

A native Midwesterner, Facione earned his PhD in Philosophy from Michigan State University and his BA in Philosophy from Sacred Heart College in Detroit. He says, “Critical thinking has helped me be a better parent, citizen, leader, consultant, teacher, writer, coach, husband, and friend. It even helps a little when playing point guard!” In academia, Facione served as provost of Loyola University–Chicago, dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Santa Clara University, and dean of the School of Human Development and Community Service at California State University–Fullerton. “As a dean and provost, I could easily see that critical thinking was alive and well in every professional field and academic discipline.”

Facione spearheaded the international study to define critical thinking, sponsored by the American Philosophical Association. His research formed the basis for numerous government policy studies about critical thinking in the workplace, including research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education. Published by Insight Assessment, his tools for assessing reasoning are used around the world in educational, business, legal, military, and health sciences. Today, Peter operates his own business, Measured Reasons. He is senior level consultant, speaker, writer, and workshop presenter. His work focuses on strategic planning and leadership decision making, in addition to teaching and assessing critical thinking. With his wife, who is also his closest research colleague and co-author of many books and assessment tools, he now lives in sunny Los Angeles, which he says, “suits [him] just fine.” You can reach him at

Carol Ann Gittens, PhD, is an Associate Dean in the College of Arts & Sciences at Santa Clara University (SCU). She is an associate professor with tenure in the Liberal Studies Program and directs SCU’s undergraduate pre-teaching advising program and the interdisciplinary minor in urban education designed for students interested in pursuing careers in PreK-12 education.

Gittens was the founding Director of Santa Clara University’s Office of Assessment from 2007 to 2012. As assessment director, she performed key activities related to institutional re-accreditation, educated academic and cocurricular programs in the assessment of student learning, and designed and oversaw an innovative multiyear, rubric-based assessment plan for a new core curriculum. She is an educational assessment mentor and accreditation evaluator for the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) as well as Board of Institutional Reviewers member of the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC), and a senior research associate with Insight Assessment, LLC.

The central focus of Gittens’ research is on the interface of critical thinking, motivation, mathematical reasoning, and academic achievement of adolescents and young adults from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. Dr. Gittens is an author or co-author of numerous articles and assessment tools focusing on critical thinking skills, numeracy, and dispositions in children and adults. As of this writing, her forthcoming paper is “Assessing Numeracy in the Upper Elementary and Middle School Years.”

Gittens’ consulting activities include working with college faculty, staff and administrators, PreK-12 educators, as well as business executives, managers, and employees. Dr. Gittens’ areas of expertise include assessment of institutional effectiveness and student learning outcomes, institutional and professional accreditation planning, translating strategic vision into measureable objectives, designing sustainable assessment systems at all levels of the institution, critical thinking pedagogy and assessment, integrating critical thinking and information literacy across the curriculum and in cocurricular programs, as well as statistics and assessment design for individuals and institutions. Gittens earned her PhD in Social and Personality Psychology from the University of California at Riverside.

She received her BA in Psychology and Women’s Studies from the University of California at Davis. Prior to her appointment at Santa Clara University she taught at California State University, San Bernardino and at Mills College in Oakland, California. Gittens and her husband live in California’s Silicon Valley with their teenaged daughter and son, and their 4-year-old daughter. She is an active parent volunteer in her children’s school, and is involved with K-12 schools in the local community, offering teacher training workshops on nurturing and assessing students’ critical thinking.

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Table of Contents

Found in this section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents


Chapter 1 The Power of Critical Thinking

Chapter 2 Skilled and Eager to Think

Chapter 3 Solve Problems and Succeed in College

Chapter 4 Clarify Ideas and Concepts

Chapter 5 Analyze Arguments and Diagram Decisions

Chapter 6 Evaluate the Credibility of Claims and Sources

Chapter 7 Evaluate Arguments: The Four Basic Tests

Chapter 8 Evaluate Deductive Reasoning and Spot Deductive Fallacies Chapter 9 Evaluate Inductive Reasoning and Spot Inductive Fallacies

Chapter 10 Think Heuristically: Risks and Benefits of Snap Judgments

Chapter 11 Think Reflectively: Strategies for Decision Making

Chapter 12 Comparative Reasoning: Think “This Is Like That”

Chapter 13 Ideological Reasoning: Think “Top Down”

Chapter 14 Empirical Reasoning: Think “Bottom Up”

Chapter 15 Write Sound and Effective Arguments

Appendix Extend Argument-Decision Mapping Strategies

Glossary Endnotes Credits Index

Supplemental Chapter A Think Like a Social Scientist

Supplemental Chapter B Think Like a Natural Scientist

Supplemental Chapter C Ethical Decision Making

Supplemental Chapter D The Logic of Declarative Statements


Acknowledgments Preface How the Book Is Organized About the Authors

Chapter 1: The Power of Critical Thinking

Risk and Uncertainty Abound Critical Thinking and a Free Society The One and the Many What Do We Mean by “Critical Thinking”?
Expert Consensus Conceptualization
“Critical Thinking” Does Not Mean “Negative Thinking”
How to Get the Most Out of This Book Evaluating Critical Thinking The Students’ Assignment—Kennedy Act The Students’ Statements—Kennedy Act

The Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric

The Students’ Assignment—Haiti

The Students’ Statements—Haiti

Chapter Review

Chapter 2: Skilled and Eager to Think

Positive Critical Thinking Habits of Mind The Spirit of Strong Critical Thinker Positive and Negative Habits of Mind Preliminary Self-Assessment Research on Critical Thinking Habits of Mind Seven Positive Critical Thinking Habits of Mind Negative Habits of Mind Is a Good Critical Thinker Automatically a Good Person?
Building Positive Habits of Mind Core Critical Thinking Skills Interpreting and Analyzing the Consensus Statement The Jury Is Deliberating Critical Thinking Skills Fire in Many Combinations Strengthening Our Core Critical Thinking Skills The Art of the Good Question Skills and Subskills Defined A First Look at Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Nurses’ Health Study—Decades of Data Inductive Reasoning Cosmos vs. Chaos Deductive Reasoning How to Get The Most Out of This Book Chapter Review

Chapter 3: Solve Problems and Succeed in College

Ideas: A 5-Step Critical Thinking Problem-Solving Process Educating the Whole Person Social Relationships STEP 1: IDENTIFY the Problem and Set Priorities Vocation STEP 1: IDENTIFY the Problem and Set Priorities STEP 2: DEEPEN Understanding and Gather Relevant Information Academics The First Two IDEAS Steps in Maria’s Case STEP 3: ENUMERATE Options and Anticipate Consequences Health and Physical Well-being The First Three Steps in Leah’s Case STEP 4: ASSESS the Situation and Make a Preliminary Decision Emotional Well-being STEP 5: SCRUTINIZE Processes and Self-Correct As Needed Spiritual Development Chapter Review

Chapter 4: Clarify Ideas and Concepts

Interpretation, Context, and Purpose How Precise Is Precise Enough?
Language and Thought Vagueness: “Where Are the Boundaries, Does the Term Include This Case or Not?”
Problematic Vagueness Ambiguity: “Which Sense of the Term Are We Using, Does It Mean This, or Does It Mean That?”
Problematic Ambiguity Resolving Problematic Vagueness and Problematic Ambiguity Contextualizing Clarifying Original Intent Negotiating the Meaning Using Qualifications, Exceptions, or Exclusions Stipulating the Meaning Your Language Communities National and Global Language Communities Language Communities Formed of People with Like Interests Academic Disciplines as Language Communities Critical Thinking and College Introductory Courses Chapter Review

Chapter 5: Analyze Arguments and Diagram Decisions

Analyzing and Mapping Arguments
“Argument = (Reason + Claim)”
Two Reasons, Two Arguments Two Confusions to Avoid
“Reason” and “Premise”
Distinguishing Reasons from Conclusion Mapping Claims and Reasons Mapping a Line of Reasoning Mapping Implicit Ideas Interpreting Unspoken Reasons and Claims in Context Interpreting the Use of Irony, Humor, Sarcasm, and More Giving Reasons and Making Arguments in Real Life The El Train Argument Huckabee and Stewart Discuss “The Pro-Life Issue—Abortion”
Analyzing and Mapping Decisions
“We Should Cancel the Spring Trip” #1
“We Should Cancel the Spring Trip” #2
Chapter Review

Chapter 6: Evaluate the Credibility of Claims and Sources

Assessing the Source—Whom Should I Trust?
Claims without Reasons Cognitive Development and Healthy Skepticism Authority and Expertise Learned and Experienced On-Topic, Up-to-Date, and Capable of Explaining Unbiased and Truthful Free of Conflicts of Interest, and Acting in the Client’s Interest Unconstrained, Informed, and Mentally Stable Twelve Characteristics of a Trustworthy Source Assessing the Substance—What Should I Believe?
Donkey Dung Detector Self-Contradictions and Tautologies Marketing, Spin, Disinformation, and Propaganda Slanted Language and Loaded Expressions Independent Verification Can the Claim Be Confirmed?
Can the Claim Be Disconfirmed?
Independent Investigation and the Q-Ray Bracelet Case Suspending Judgment Chapter Review

Chapter 7: Evaluate Arguments: The Four Basic Tests

Giving Reasons and Making Arguments Truthfulness Logical Strength Relevance Non-Circularity The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments Test #1: Truthfulness of the Premises Test #2: Logical Strength Test #3: Relevance Test #4: Non-Circularity Contexts for Argument Making and Evaluative Terms Common Reasoning Errors Fallacies of Relevance Appeals to Ignorance Appeals to the Mob Appeals to Emotion
Ad Hominem Attacks Straw Man Fallacy Playing with Words Fallacy Misuse of Authority Fallacy Chapter Review

Chapter 8: Evaluate Deductive Reasoning and Spot Deductive Fallacies

Deductive Validity and Language Reasoning Deductively about Declarative Statements Denying the Consequent Affirming the Antecedent Disjunctive Syllogism Reasoning Deductively about Classes of Objects Applying a Generalization Applying an Exception The Power of “Only”
Reasoning Deductively about Relationships Transitivity, Reflexivity, and Identity Fallacies Masquerading as Valid Deductive Arguments Fallacies When Reasoning with Declarative Statements Affirming the Consequent Denying the Antecedent Fallacies When Reasoning about Classes of Objects False Classification Fallacies of Composition and Division Mistaken Identity False Reference Chapter Review

Chapter 9: Evaluate Inductive Reasoning and Spot Inductive Fallacies

Inductions and the Evidence at Hand Evaluating Generalizations Was the Correct Group Sampled?
Were the Data Obtained in an Effective Way?
Were Enough Cases Considered?
Was the Sample Representatively Structured?
Coincidences, Correlations, and Causes Coincidences Correlations Causes Fallacies Masquerading as Strong Inductive Arguments Erroneous Generalization Playing with Numbers False Dilemma The Gambler’s Fallacy False Cause Slippery Slope Chapter Review

Chapter 10: Think Heuristically: Risks and Benefits of Snap Judgments

Human Decision-Making Systems The “Two-Systems” Approach to Human Decision Making Reactive (System-1) Thinking Reflective (System-2) Thinking The Value of Each System Heuristics: Their Benefits and Risks Individual Cognitive Heuristics
1. Satisficing and 2. Temporizing
3. Affect: “Go with your Gut”
4. Simulation
5. Availability
6. Representation
7. Association
8. Stereotyping
9. “Us vs. Them”
10. Power Differential
11. Anchoring with Adjustment
12. Illusion of Control
13. Optimistic Bias and 14. Hindsight Bias
15. Elimination by Aspect: “One Strike and You’re Out”
16. Loss and Risk Aversion
17. “All or Nothing”
Heuristics in Action Chapter Review

Chapter 11: Think Reflectively: Strategies for Decision Making

Dominance Structuring: A Fortress of Conviction
“I Would Definitely Go to the Doctor”
Explaining and Defending Ourselves A Poorly Crafted Assignment Moving from Decision to Action Phase 1: Pre-editing Phase 2: Identifying One Promising Option Phase 3: Testing the Promising Option Phase 4: Fortifying the To-Be-Chosen Option Benefits and Risks of Dominance Structuring The Classic “O. J. Defense” Example Self-Regulation Critical Thinking Skill Strategies Critical Thinking Precautions When Pre-Editing Be Sure about “the Problem”
Specify the Decision-Critical Attributes Be Clear about Why an Option Is In or Out Critical Thinking Precautions When Identifying the Promising Option Scrutinize Options with Disciplined Impartiality Listen to Both Sides First Critical Thinking Precautions When Testing the Promising Option Use All the Essential Criteria Treat Equals as Equals Diligently Engage in Truth-Seeking and Remain Impartial Critical Thinking Precautions When Fortifying the To-Be-Chosen Option Be Honest with Yourself Critical Thinking Strategies for Better Decision Making Task Independent Teams with the Same Problem Decide When It’s Time to Decide Analyze Indicators and Make Mid-Course Corrections Create a Culture of Respect for Critical Thinking Chapter Review

Chapter 12: Comparative Reasoning: Think “This is Like That”

Comparative, Ideological, and Empirical Inferences
“This is Like That”—Recognizing Comparative Reasoning Gardens of Comparatives Powerful Comparisons Connect Intellect and Emotion Evaluating Comparative Inferences Do the Four Tests of Acceptability Apply?
Five Criteria for Evaluating Comparative Reasoning Familiarity Simplicity Comprehensiveness Productivity Testability Shaping Our View of the Universe for Two Thousand Years The Many Uses of Comparative Inferences Chapter Review

Chapter 13: Ideological Reasoning: Think “Top Down”

“Top Down” Thinking: Recognizing Ideological Reasoning Examples of Ideological Reasoning Three Features of Ideological Reasoning Ideological Reasoning Is Deductive in Character Ideological Premises Are Axiomatic The Argument Maker Takes the Ideological Absolutes on Faith Evaluating Ideological Reasoning Are the Ideological Premises True?
Logical Strength and Ideological Belief Systems Relevancy, Non-Circularity, and Ideological Reasoning Uses, Benefits, and Risks of Ideological Reasoning Chapter Review

Chapter 14: Empirical Reasoning: Think “Bottom Up”

Recognizing Empirical Reasoning Characteristics of Empirical Reasoning Empirical Reasoning Is Inductive Empirical Reasoning Is Self-Corrective Empirical Reasoning Is Open to Independent Verification Hypotheses, Conditions, and Measureable Manifestations Conducting an Investigation Scientifically Perhaps the First Recorded Empirical Investigations Steps in the Process of an Extended Example Evaluating Empirical Reasoning Benefits and Risks Associated with Empirical Reasoning Chapter Review

Chapter 15: Write Sound and Effective Arguments

What Critical Thinking Questions Do Effective Writers Ask?
Think Author Find Your Voice Think about Who You Read Think Audience What Does the Audience Care About?
Writing For You Who Is Your Audience?
Same Author and Audience, Different Purpose Think Purpose and Circumstances Think Tactics Clues from Contextual Cues Think How to Organize and Develop Your Presentation Reach Out and Grab Someone Crafting a Presentation Good News: Writing Is Work An Arguable Thesis Statement and Solid Research Map Out the Arguments Pro and Con—Then Outline Your Case Evaluating the Credibility of Sources Prewriting, Writing, and Rewriting Two Practical Tips Evaluating Effectiveness Features of Sound and Effective Written Argumentation A Tool for Evaluating Critical Thinking and Writing How to Apply the Rubric for Evaluating Written Argumentation
Chapter Review

Appendix Extend Argument-Decision Mapping Strategies

Mapping the Sequence of Arguments Mapping Forms of Inference Mapping Supporting Information Mapping the Decision System Less Is More Schwarzenegger’s Denial of Clemency Map Group Decision Making Research Applications

Glossary Endnotes Credits Index

Supplemental Chapter A: Think Like a Social Scientist

What Critical Thinking Questions Do Social Scientists Ask?
Thinking Like a Social Scientist

The Spirit of Scientific Inquiry Can Manifest Itself Early in Life

Think Participants Think Situation Think Actions Think Motivation Social Science Investigative Methods Let the Question Drive the Investigatory Technique Data Gathering Techniques Practical and Logistical Challenges Motivations and Temptations The “I’m on Camera” Effect Thinking About the Standards No Simple Explanations of Complex Phenomena Proceeding with Warranted Confidence Statistical Analyses Narrative Analyses The Risks Inherent in All Human Judgments Critical Thinking Self-Regulation We Are What We Study We Affect What We Study Finding What Isn’t There and Not Finding What Is There Integrating Findings Thinking about Social Science in the Real World (Applications)
Example One: Business Administration Example Two: Elementary Education Chapter Review

Supplemental Chapter B: Think Like a Natural Scientist

What Critical Thinking Questions Do Natural Scientists Ask?
Thinking Like a Natural Scientist Think Curious and Intriguing Natural Phenomenon Think Empirically Testable Causal Explanation Think How to Prevent and How to Bring About the Phenomenon Think How to Integrate New Knowledge with Broader Scientific Understandings Methods of Scientific Investigation Let the Empirical Question Drive the Inquiry Thinking About the Standards Confidence in Scientific Findings
“True to a Scientific Certainty”
Finding What Isn’t There and Not Finding What Is There

Confidence in Scientific Theories Thinking about Real-World Applications of Natural Science Chapter Review

Supplemental Chapter C: Ethical Decision Making

Ethical Imperatives Think Consequences Think Duties Think Virtues Decision Making and Ethical Decision Making Some Factors Affect Many Decisions Reactive and Reflective Ethical Decision Making Thinking Through Diverging Ethical Imperatives Prioritize, Create, and Negotiate Establish Priorities Create Additional Options Negotiate Based On Each Party’s Interests Personal Consistency and Respect for Others Apply the “Golden Rule”—Do Unto Others as You Would Have Others Do Unto You Chapter Review

Supplemental Chapter D: The Logic of Declarative Statements

Part 1: Statements Simple Statements Negations Statement Compounds: “And”, “Or”, “If, then,” etc.
Conjunctions Disjunctions Conditionals Part 2: Translating Between Symbolic Logic and a Natural Language Grammatically Correct Expressions Translatiing to English Translating to Symbolic Logic Example: Translating a Telephone Tree What the Telephone Tree Example Teaching About Translation Part 3: Detecting the Logical Characteristics of Statements Building Truth-Tables Tautologies, Inconsistent Statements, and Contingent Statements Testing for Implication and Equivalence Part 4: Evaluating Arguments for Validity Testing Symbolic Arguments for Validity Testing Natural Language Arguments for Validity Chapter Review

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