Think Critically

Paperback (Print)
Rent
Rent from BN.com
$35.02
(Save 59%)
Est. Return Date: 06/18/2014
Buy New
Buy New from BN.com
$71.12
Buy Used
Buy Used from BN.com
$53.80
(Save 36%)
Item is in good condition but packaging may have signs of shelf wear/aging or torn packaging.
Condition: Used – Good details
Used and New from Other Sellers
Used and New from Other Sellers
from $1.99
Usually ships in 1-2 business days
(Save 97%)
Other sellers (Paperback)
  • All (14) from $1.99   
  • New (2) from $59.88   
  • Used (12) from $1.99   

Overview

THINK Critically is a cutting-edge self-reflective guide for improving critical thinking skills through careful analysis, reasoned inference and thoughtful evaluation of contemporary culture and ideas.

Taking cues from everyday life -- education, business, health sciences, social work, law, government policy issues and current events -- THINK Critically bridges the principles of critical thinking with real-world application.

With a highly-visual design, accessible narrative, and interactive approach, THINK Critically strengthens students’ skills and motivation to make reasoned judgments.

This text introduces critical thinking by showcasing what vital and central positive habits of mind are, revisiting and building upon those skills throughout the text.

Jam-packed with engaging examples and masterful exercises, THINK Critically explains how to clarify ideas, analyze arguments, and evaluate inductive, deductive, comparative, ideological and empirical reasoning.

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205738458
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 1/18/2010
  • Series: Think Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Pages: 264
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Meet the Author

In This Section:

I. Author Bio

II. Author Letter

I. Author Bio

Peter Facione, PhD, wants to help everyone build up their critical thinking skills, for their own sakes, and for the sake of our freedom and democracy. Facione draws on decades of experience as a teacher, consultant, business entrepreneur, university dean, grandfather, husband, and avid “old school” pickup basketball player. Now he is taking his message about the importance of critical thinking directly to students. For improving reasoning skills for use in one’s personal, professional, and civic life, there may never before have been a more practical, enjoyable, important, comprehensive, and engaging text than this.

“I’ve paid very close attention to the way people make decisions since I was 13 years old,” says Facione. “Some people were good at solving problems and making decisions; others were not. I have always felt driven to figure out how to tell which were which.” He says that this led him as an undergraduate and later as a professor to study psychology, philosophy, logic, statistics, and information systems as he searched for how our beliefs, values, thinking skills, and habits of mind connect with the decisions we make, particularly in contexts of risk and uncertainty.

“As a teacher and as a college administrator, I focused on problem-solving and decision-making strategies so that I could be a more effective teacher and a more capable leader. I found it was always valuable when working with groups or individuals to be mindful of how they applied their cognitive skills and habits of mind to solve a problem, make a decision, or troubleshoot a situation. Careful analysis and open-minded truth seeking always worked better than any other way of approaching problems.”

A native Midwesterner, Facione earned his PhD in philosophy from Michigan State University and his BA in philosophy from Sacred Heart College in Detroit. He says, “Critical thinking has helped me be a better parent, citizen, manager, teacher, writer, and friend. It even helps a little when playing point guard!”

In academia, Facione served as provost of Loyola University—Chicago, dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Santa Clara University, and dean of the School of Human Development and Community Service at California State University—Fullerton. “As a dean and provost, I could easily see that critical thinking was alive and well in every professional field and academic discipline.”

“I’ve focused my research on the teaching and measurement of critical thinking since my earliest years as a faculty member in the 1960s and 1970s. But before you can measure something that crosses into every aspect of life, you have to be sure that you understand what it is. So in the 1980s, I first had to see whether there was a consensus among experts about the term critical thinking. After two years of research, a solid consensus emerged. That plus all the stats and behavioral science research I had studied and taught for years enabled me and my research team, during the 1990s, to design and validate tools to assess critical thinking skills and habits of mind. In the first decade of this century, our team has explored the connections between critical thinking and human decision making in its broadest sense.”

In fact, Facione spearheaded the international study to define critical thinking, sponsored by the American Philosophical Association. His research formed the basis for numerous government policy studies about critical thinking in the workplace, including research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education. Today, his tools for assessing reasoning are used around the world in educational, business, legal, military, and health sciences.

Today, Peter operates his own business, Measured Reasons. He is a speaker, writer, workshop presenter, and consultant for organizations large and small. His work focuses on strategic planning and leadership decision making, in addition to teaching and assessing critical thinking. With his wife, who is also his closest research colleague and coauthor of many books and assessment tools, he now lives in sunny Los Angeles, which suits him just fine. He welcomes questions from students and instructors–you can reach him at pfacione@measuredreasons.com.

II. Author Letter

Dear Colleague,

Please forgive this intrusion, but I wanted to offer you some personal thoughts about why this book Think Critically , is for me, rather special.

Think Critically incorporates lessons learned over a 40+ year career devoted to teaching, measuring, researching and advocating for greater attention to critical thinking. As you may know, in addition to my own work with college students, I’ve authored critical thinking tests, written widely used essays about critical thinking, and presented hundreds of workshops and presentations to community college, four-year college, and university faculty on teaching for and about critical thinking. Why all this effort and attention devoted to critical thinking? Because in my view there may be no more valuable thing that one can gain through a college education than learning to solve problems effectively and to make well informed and well reasoned decisions. And for this we need strong critical thinking skills and positive critical thinking habits of mind.

When Pearson Education invited me to write Think Critically, it was a joy, an honor, and, I soon realized, an awesome responsibility. The book had to be accessible to students from a very wide variety of educational and social backgrounds, and, at the same time it had pass muster with faculty from many different disciplines. The book had to be practical and enjoyable, and yet based on solid conceptual foundations and proven pedagogical principles. The book had to address the topics that faculty from the widest possible spectrum of academic divisions would expect to find and do so in a way that was intellectually in harmony with the other courses those faculty might teach. And, above all, the book had to work! If using Think Critically did not lead to measurable gains in students' critical thinking, then the effort would have been for naught.

At this point the reviews are in from faculty around the country. The demands were met. The book works. Students do improve in their critical thinking skills and, equally importantly, in their critical thinking habits of mind. Instructors from a host of different academic departments enjoy teaching with Think Critically. There are extra exercises, sample test questions, and many other learning support materials for students at the free online URL www.TheThinkSpot.com that have been contributed by several faculty from around the country. The Instructor’s Manual, written by Dr. Carol Gittens, offers teaching tips for every part of the book, creative alternative exercise ideas for every class session, and it includes a special section for faculty who may never before have offered a critical thinking course.

How lucky we are, who teach for thinking, to have such an important part to play in our students' education! There can perhaps be no more valuable gift to our students than that we guide their development of stronger critical thinking skills and deeper positive critical thinking habits of mind. Truth-seeking, open-mindedness, judiciousness, intellectual integrity and inquisitiveness are habits for life, not just for their brief sojourns in college. The core critical thinking skills are the tools these habits impel them to use in order to make well-reasoned, reflective judgments whenever and wherever deciding what to believe or what to do. How could I hope for more than that our mutual efforts, yours as their professor and mentor, mine as the author of the text book, should bring about such wonderful and valuable learning?

Please know that even if you decide to use some other textbook, we still share this common purpose - we teach for critical thinking. And if, as I hope, you select Think Critically, then please also know that I am only an email away (pfacione@measuredreasons.com). I would love to hear your comments about how the book is working for your students, suggestions you or they might have for improvements, or simply reactions to any of the over one hundred sets of exercises it contains.

Seriously, write me any time about critical thinking - questions, concerns, whatever. This work we do is important.

Pete Facione

Measured Reasons

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Purposeful, Reflective Judgment

Risk and Uncertainty Abound

Critical Thinking and a Free Society

The One and the Many

What Do We Mean by “Critical Thinking”?

Expert Consensus Conceptualization

“Critical Thinking” Does Not Mean “Negative Thinking”

How to Get the Most Out of This Book

Evaluating Critical Thinking

The Students’ Assignment

The Students’ Statements

The Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric

Chapter 2: The “Able” in “Willing and Able” to Think Critically

Core Critical Thinking Skills

Interpreting and Analyzing the Consensus Statement

The Jury Is Deliberating

Critical Thinking Skills Fire In Many Combinations

Strengthening Our Core Critical Thinking Skills

The Art of the Good Question

Skills and Subskills Defined

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Nurses’ Health Study - Decades of Data

Inductive Reasoning

Cosmos vs. Chaos

Deductive Reasoning

Chapter 3: The “Willing” in “Willing and Able” to Think Critically

A Group Engaged in Crisis-Level Critical Thinking

The Spirit of a Strong Critical Thinker

Positive and Negative Habits of Mind

Preliminary Self-Assessment

Research on the Disposition toward Critical Thinking

Seven Positive Critical Thinking Habits of Mind

Negative Habits of Mind

Is a Good Critical Thinker Automatically a Good Person?

Building Positive Habits of Mind

Reconnecting Skills and Dispositions

Chapter 4: Clarifying Ideas

Interpretation, Context, and Purpose

How Precise Is Precise Enough?

Language and Thought

Vagueness: “Does the Term Include This Case or Not?”

Problematic Vagueness

Ambiguity: “Does the Term Mean This, or Does It Mean That?”

Problematic Ambiguity

Resolving Problematic Vagueness and Ambiguity

Contextualizing

Clarifying Original Intent

Negotiating the Meaning

Using Qualifications, Exceptions, or Exclusions

Stipulating the Meaning

Your Language Communities

National and Global Language Communities

Language Communities Formed of People with Like Interests

Academic Disciplines as Language Communities

Critical Thinking and College Introductory Courses

Chapter 5: Using Maps to Analyze Arguments and Decisions

Analyzing and Mapping Arguments

“Argument = (Reason + Claim)”

Two Reasons, Two Arguments

Two Confusions to Avoid

“Reason” and “Premise”

Distinguishing Reasons from Conclusion

Mapping Claims and Reasons

Mapping a Line of Reasoning

Mapping Implicit Ideas

Interpreting Unspoken Reasons and Claims in Context

Interpreting the Use of Irony, Humor, Sarcasm, and More

Giving Reasons and Making Arguments in Real Life

The El Train Argument from Twelve Angry Men

Huckabee and Stewart Discuss “The Pro-Life Issue — Abortion”

Analyzing and Mapping Decisions

“We Should Cancel the Spring Trip” #1

“We Should Cancel the Spring Trip” #2

Chapter 6: Evaluating Claims

Assessing the Source — Whom Should I Trust?

Claims Without Reasons

Cognitive Development and Healthy Skepticism

Authority and Expertise

Learned and Experienced

On-Topic, Up-to-Date, and Capable of Explaining

Unbiased and Truthful

Free of Conflicts of Interest, and Acting in the Client’s Interest

Unconstrained, Informed, and Mentally Stable

Assessing the Substance — What Should I Believe?

Donkey Dung Detector

Marketing, Spin, Disinformation, and Propaganda

Slanted Language and Loaded Expressions

Independent Verification

Can the Claim Be Confirmed?

Can the Claim Be Disconfirmed?

Independent Investigation and the Q-Ray Bracelet Case

Suspending Judgment

Chapter 7: Evaluating Arguments

Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Truthfulness

Logical Strength

Relevance

Non-Circularity

The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Test #1: Truthfulness of the Premises

Test #2: Logical Strength

Test #3: Relevance

Test #4: Non-Circularity

Contexts for Argument Making and Evaluative Terms

Common Reasoning Errors

Fallacies of Relevance

Appeals to Ignorance

Appeals to the Mob

Appeals to Emotion

Ad Hominem Attacks

Straw Man Fallacy

Playing with Words

Misuse of Authority

Chapter 8: Evaluating Deductive and Inductive Reasoning

Deductive Validity and Language

Reasoning Deductively about Declarative Statements

Denying the Consequent

Affirming the Antecedent

Disjunctive Syllogism

Reasoning Deductively about Classes of Objects

Applying a Generalization

Applying an Exception

The Power of “Only”

Reasoning Deductively about Relationships

Transitivity, Reflexivity, and Identity

Fallacies Masquerading as Valid Deductive Arguments

Affirming the Consequent

Denying the Antecedent

False Classification

Fallacies of Composition and Division

False Reference

Inductions and the Evidence at Hand

Evaluating Generalizations

Was the correct group sampled?

Were the data obtained in an effective way?

Were enough cases considered?

Was the sample representatively structured?

Coincidences, Correlations, and Causes

Coincidences

Correlations

Causes

Fallacies Masquerading as Strong Inductive Arguments

Erroneous Generalization

Playing with Numbers

False Dilemma

The Gambler’s Fallacy

False Cause

Slippery Slope

Chapter 9: Snap Judgments — Heuristic Thinking

Human Decision-Making Systems

The “Two-Systems” Approach to Human Decision Making

Reactive (System-1) Thinking

Reflective (System-2) Thinking

The Value of Each System

Heuristics: Their Benefits and Risks

Individual Cognitive Heuristics

1. Satisficing and 2. Temporizing

3. Affect: “Go with your Gut”

4. Simulation
5. Availability
6. Representation
7. Association
8. Stereotyping
9. “Us vs. Them”
10. Power Differential
11. Anchoring with Adjustment
12. Illusion of Control

13. Optimistic Bias and 14. Hindsight Bias

15. Elimination by Aspect: “One Strike and You’re Out”
16. Loss and Risk Aversion
17. “All-or-Nothing”

Heuristics in Action

Chapter 10: Deciding What to Do and Doing It

Dominance Structuring: A Fortress of Conviction

“I Would Definitely Go to the Doctor”

Explaining and Defending Ourselves

A Poorly Crafted Assignment

Moving from Decision to Action

Phase 1: Pre-editing

Phase 2: Identifying One Promising Option

Phase 3: Testing the Promising Option

Phase 4: Fortifying the To-Be-Chosen Option

Benefits and Risks of Dominance Structuring

O.J. Simpson’s Vigorous Defense

Self-Regulation Critical Thinking Skill Strategies

Critical Thinking Precautions when Pre-editing

Be Sure About “the Problem”

Specify the Decision-Critical Attributes

Be Clear about Why an Option Is In or Out

Critical Thinking Precautions When Identifying the Promising Option

Scrutinize Options with Disciplined Impartiality

Listen to Both Sides First

Critical Thinking Precautions when Testing the Promising Option

Use All the Essential Criteria

Treat Equals as Equals

Diligently Engage in Truth-Seeking and Remain Impartial

Critical Thinking Precautions when Fortifying the To-Be-Chosen Option

Be Honest with Yourself

Critical Thinking Strategies for Better Decision Making

Task Independent Teams with the Same Problem

Decide When It’s Time to Decide

Analyze Indicators and Make Mid-Course Corrections

Create a Culture of Respect for Critical Thinking

Chapter 11: Comparative Reasoning — “This is Like That” Thinking

Comparative, Ideological, and Empirical Inferences

“This is Like That” — Recognizing Comparative Reasoning

Evaluating Comparative Inferences

Do the Four Tests of Acceptability Apply?

Five Criteria for Evaluating Comparative Reasoning

Familiarity

Simplicity

Comprehensiveness

Productivity

Testability

Shaping our View of the Universe for Two Thousand Years

The Many Uses of Comparative Inferences

Chapter 12: Ideological Reasoning — “Top Down” Thinking

“Top Down” Thinking — Recognizing Ideological Reasoning

Examples of Ideological Reasoning

Three Features of Ideological Reasoning

Ideological Reasoning Is Deductive in Character

Ideological Premises Are Axiomatic

The Argument Maker Takes the Ideological Absolutes on Faith

Evaluating Ideological Reasoning

Are the Ideological Premises True?

Logical Strength and Ideological Belief Systems

Relevancy, Non-Circularity and Ideological Reasoning

Uses, Benefits and Risks of Ideological Reasoning

Chapter 13: Empirical Reasoning — “Bottom — Up” Thinking

Recognizing Empirical Reasoning

Characteristics of Empirical Reasoning

Empirical Reasoning Is Inductive

Empirical Reasoning Is Self-Corrective

Empirical Reasoning Is Open to Independent Verification

Hypotheses, Conditions and Measurable Manifestations

Conducting an Investigation Scientifically

Perhaps the First Recorded Empirical Investigation

Steps in the Process an Extended Example

Evaluating Empirical Reasoning

Benefits and Risks Associated with Empirical Reasoning

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)