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The ten above listed questions are a few of the main questions of long standing disclosed in this first 2012 publication. Several other topics, such as the variety of orbital constructs, and the interacting force of gravity will publish later this year. We expect, and anxiously look forward to others discovering more than is presented herein.
1.1 Introduction
The key and overlooked force brought to light beginning in this chapter is the smallest force in the universe, configured in the several differing and interacting forces of all atoms and photons, and reveals the obscured nuclear strong force.
We review the two requirements that develop sine wave formations in water, laser beams, laser diode communications, and pulse shaping using laser diodes.
Throughout the spectrum of photon wavelengths, Planck's constant of di / dt = eV was needed to determine their wavelengths by their far-ranging electromagnetic field. The nodal current range (di) of Planck's established constant plus determining the field potential provides for solving its time duration (dt, wavelength time).
A supporting carrier density (non-nodal) for the photon has never been detected by its di / dt = eV force because a carrier current density level (di = 0) remains constant. The magnetic field of a constant current flow level has a very short distance of detection, and is accountable when two or more coherently attract together in close aligned laser beams having low level repulsing electromagnetic fields.
A review of sine wave formations of various density distributions such as water waves demonstrates the carrier density role in the development of sine wave formations. We also review the more complex requirement for carrier density management during the process of producing reliable pulse shapes for laser beam transmission.
Drawing a sine wave shape with a pencil on paper requires two different directions of the hand, or arm, to move continually horizontally, and upward and downward in a continuing sequence. The horizontal Z-axis force is linear, and the vertical x-axis force is reciprocal.
1.2 Ocean wave carrier density
Determining the size and profile of ocean waves is obviously less complex than the direction and magnitude of its undercurrent and interacting forces beneath.
1.2.1 A review of ocean waveform requirements
The important interaction of the nodal wave and sub-nodal carrier density is demonstrated when ocean waves degrade significantly while approaching a beach with a diminishing water depth. The magnitude of the wave density requires a corresponding carrier density to develop its sine wave profile.
1.2.2 An obviously impossible wave formation
Lateral surface wind force and the downward force of gravity interacting through a sufficient carrier density are required for developing sinusoidal ocean wave shapes.
The carrier density requirement for sine wave formation of water caused by a wind force in the direction of movement, and gravity interacting with the right angle reciprocating force of the required carrier density, completes the first review.
1.3 Laser diode modulation for digital communication
Limitations for high-speed laser diode modulation relates to the transient oscillations caused by interactions between the optical field and the amount of its carrier density. Prevention of undesired output light pulses that affect bit error rate is one of several techniques developed in the past for overcoming said limitations in the following laser digital communication example.
1.3.1 Sufficient bias current level providing predictable data bit shapes
The criteria, is for achieving the highest bit rate with a desired intensity of separation between the high and low of each bit combination transmitted under the worst-case conditions.
It is interesting to note the sine wave shape of the pulses close to the carrier density beneath them due to their interaction, and compare that with their pointed outer shapes that occur at distances further away from the carrier force.
The direct modulation of a semi-conductor laser involves changing its current input around the bias current level, to produce the time-dependent bit shape requirement.
1.4 Laser beam profiles
The beam's diameter is the circular beam at a point where the intensity drops to a certain fraction of its maximum value. The common definitions are half the intensity i.e. full width at half-maximum (FWHM), 1/e (0.368) and 1/e^{2} (0.135) of the maximum value. In other words, beam diameter is the diameter of the laser beam cross section between points near the outer edge of the beam where its intensity is only 50 % (FWHM), 63% (1- 1/e) and about 86% (1-1/e^{2}) of the intensity at the beam center.
All parallel and flat mirror wave formations of coherent laser beams that have been plotted for inner (non-nodal) radial density distribution along their Z=axis, have never revealed a proportion going much less than one half of the nodal density range. In particular, there is never a zero density at any of the node minimum locations.
1.5 Laser diode carrier density
1.5.1 p-n diode laser beam wave formation
The nodal density waveform graphic reference to the anti-node and node of a laser coherent beam, illustrates its sinusoidal density distribution profile, and its dependency on the carrier density level to be at least half that of its nodal density range.
When referencing one specific photon wavelength, Planck's constant for eV (di dt = eV), indicates that the 4.136 667 33 x 10^{-15} amp density differential (di) from its node to anti-node, divided by the wavelength period (dt) equals the magnetic field (eV) of its wave length.
Two or more coherent wavelengths together do not increase the result of the di/dt = eV of Planck constant, but does concentrate their carrier current and nodal radial density.
Producing reliable sinusoidal waveforms for laser communications depends on proper amplitude and timing control of pulse shapes and having a sufficient carrier level.
1.5.2 X-Y-Z-axis density plot of the pn-diode laser beam
The Z-axis carrier current reference arrows A through E represent the relative size of the two dimensional Y-axis carrier density of the laser beam sketch shown in Figure 1.5.1.
The three dimensional representation of the carrier current is depicted at the X, Y and Z-axis point at the right side, and its minimum level is indicated at D is required for carrier and nodal interaction for developing the sine wave formation.
The two-dimensional proportions of A through E is used to reference that D is at least half that of its wave portion F and G (not including the carrier).
The lesser carrier proportions of A, B, and C show the abruptness of the wave density changes associated therewith, whereas that of D, E, or greater, have sufficient interaction for sine wave formation.
1.6 The carrier, nodal and spherical viewing of a free falling water stream
A good look at running water from a water tap provides a very good three-dimensional view of carrier current and nodal current as portrayed by their molecular and nuclear make-up.
It is important to notice the last moment of attraction remaining between the carrier current "K" and the separation by acceleration of the nodal "L". It is interesting and helpful to observe the forces of a multitude of combined H ^{2}O orbitals in action reciprocating with the force of gravity.
Man's first successful use of direct (carrier) current flow to send audio waves for telephone communication was by Alexander Graham Bell.
The amplitude and frequency of the spoken words and sounds varied the direct current level through two conductors between two locations by the in line variation of the microphone's resistance change. The current fluctuations reflected the unique phrasing and pitch of the voice and degree of variation, and its volume. An important consideration for undistorted wave formations at the receiving end of the transmission was for the current wave formations to remain well within the maximum direct current carrier range by a sufficient percentage. This minimized distortion of the wave shapes during maximum expected audio levels, and increased its signal to noise ratio. Stated differently, the wave formations and volume range expected, never reduced the steady current carrier past an established minimal level.
To maintain the wave formation integrity throughout the transmission, the percentage of amplitude modulation (variation) of the direct current flow, should not allow the direct current to decrease much less than half. This maximized waveform integrity, and reduced noise interference.
1.7 The photon wave formation
The photon has a very reliable sinusoidal wave formation throughout its wavelength spectrum as proven by Planck's constant that establishes a range of current minimum to maximum produced by all wavelengths (di / dt = eV). That current range from minimum to maximum (di) divided by the time for its completion (DT), always equals the electromagnetic field level (eV) being produced. The rate of nodal current change is sinusoidal in wave formation and varies between two levels by 4.135 667 516 x 10 ^{-15} Amp. The possible inner carrier level for wave formation remains undetected because non-pulsating (direct) current level requires detection at a very short distance.
The photon's sine wave revealed by the electromagnetic force per Planck's constant is representative of its length, shape, amount (di) and rate (dt) of current change. The amount of necessary carrier current that provides and maintains its close and strong reciprocating nodal interaction is assumed to be at 2.067 833 758 x 10 ^{-15} Amp, which is di /2, and equals Planck's nodal current average.
Two forces are required to develop and maintain all sine waveforms of energy, with one being pro-active, and the other, intra-active. The exposed stealth operation of the photon's carrier force is answering many of our long-standing questions. The photon has its X-Y-axis carrier non-nodal current concentrically within its outer nodal formation. The carrier being devoid of an electromagnetic long-range field has been indiscernible, but having interacting presence.
The close range attraction force of two direct current fields has provided for attributing the source of the strong force of close attraction in the nuclear physics realm, and for substantiating many past findings. In fact, if you factored two proton Compton wavelength diameters at 0.420 617 821 x 10 ^{-15} Amp, and plot their concentric 1 firmi axis separation at 2.067 833 758 x 10 ^{-15} Amp, you have the strong force of 2.328 893 x 10 ^{-8} Tesla attraction from each, at their .500 x 10 ^{-15}m off axis radial intersection. Using Planck's 938 272 046 eV electromagnetic field of its nodal current as produced in its diameter form, we obtain a more diverse distribution than from the closer and stronger carrier current attraction.
How magnificently simple it is to have both types of forces produced by the interacting carrier/nodal current traveling at C, around its point of gravitational reference. Further developments presented in the remaining chapters.
The outer nodal current (di) range of 4.135677 516 x 10 ^{-15} Amp and its interacting carrier current at 2.067 833 758 x 10 ^{-15} Amp complete that required for Planck's constant being viable throughout the spectrum of photon wavelengths.
The average nodal current plus the carrier current, equals the same number as its di which is 4.135 677 516 x 10 ^{-15} A.
1.8 Summary of sine wave formation requirements
We have now reviewed the first of several functions of the carrier density level regarding its necessary interaction with the nodal density level for developing and maintaining the sinusoidal wave formations in water, telephone communication, and pulse formation using laser diodes.
The longevity of the vast range of photon wavelengths throughout their continual encounters traversing many galaxies throughout millions of light years has proven their strong inner carrier force to withstand the test of time.
2.1 Historical reference and comment
The time for discovering the missing link for the proton construct and longevity moved forward in the 1970s when the atomic nuclei made up of protons and a force of attraction called mesons that were then termed, combinations of quarks and gluons that held the nucleons together.
The nuclear force of attraction was strong enough to bind neutrons and protons over short distances, and to overcome the electro-magnetic repulsion between protons in the nucleus. Because the quark and gluon forces have been more detectable spinning about a point of rest as are the nucleon, it is long past due that the same should occur for the great spectrum of photon traveling at C past their points of rest, including their interactions with the proton, neutron, and electron.
2.2 Introduction
The first chapter reviewed a few well-known wave formations to show that, two proportioned forces occurring from two axis directions is required for developing consistent sine waveforms.
We begin this chapter by applying the basics reviewed in chapter one, and depict a photon's typical wave shape with a two-axis graphic representation, and transition its perspective to a three-dimensional photon wavelength.
(Continues...)
Excerpted from This FIRST TIME publication shows the origins & operation of the Nuclear Strong Force, the Proton, Neutron, Electron, and the recently identified Carrier Current of the Photon by Joseph L Levasseur Copyright © 2012 by Joseph L. Levasseur. Excerpted by permission of AuthorHouse. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
Overview
1. how the strong force of attraction profile is developed by the proton and neutron, and cause of its relatively short range,
2. the make-up of the quark and gluon of the proton and neutron,
3. the ...