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Natural images of objects and scenes show a fascinating amount of variability due to different factors like lighting change, viewpoint change, occlusion and even articulation and non-rigid deformation. Various techniques for object recognition and image matching either try to model these changes or are insensitive to them. There are certain cases like recognition of specular objects and images with arbitrary deformations where existing techniques do not perform well. We aim to develop new techniques to deal with some of these cases. We propose two different approaches for attacking deformation in images. The first approach is based on matching keypoints in images using histogram descriptors, while the second approach is based on a completely deformation invariant representation for images. Histograms are a powerful statistical representation for keypoint matching and content based image retrieval. The earth mover's distance (EMD) is an important perceptually meaningful metric for comparing histograms, but it suffers from high (O(n3 log n)) computational complexity. We propose a novel linear time algorithm for approximating the EMD for low dimensional histograms using the sum of absolute values of the weighted wavelet coefficients of the difference histogram. EMD computation is a special case of the Kantorovich-Rubinstein transshipment problem, and we exploit the Holder continuity constraint in its dual form to convert it into a simple optimization problem with an explicit solution in the wavelet domain. We prove that the resulting wavelet EMD metric is equivalent to EMD, i.e. the ratio of the two is bounded and provide estimates for the bounds. The weighted wavelet transform can be computed in time linear in the number of histogram bins, while comparison is about as fast as for the normal Euclidean distance or chi2 statistic. We experimentally show that wavelet EMD is a good approximation to EMD, has similar performance, but requires much less computation. The same algorithm can be used to compare histograms with unequal mass. We also provide an algorithm that computes the best match between a histogram and a scaled version of another histogram. For practical evaluation of these techniques, we have a C++ implementation of the fast Lifting Wavelet transform algorithm for arbitrary dimensional histograms. An image of a non-planar object can undergo a large non-linear deformation due to a viewpoint change. Complex deformations occur in images of non-rigid objects, for example, in medical image sequences. We propose using the contour tree as a novel framework invariant to arbitrary (smooth) deformations for representing and comparing images. The contour tree encodes the arrangement of the iso-intensity contours of an image and is invariant to arbitrary deformations since it does not depend on the shape of the contours. It represents all the deformation invariant information in an image. Computing the edit distance between two trees gives us a measure of the deformation invariant distance between the two corresponding images. This distance measure can also take into account various other difficulties of image matching, such as noise, occlusion and lighting changes. Lighting changes greatly affect the appearance of all objects and make recognition difficult. Recognition of specular objects is particularly difficult because their appearance is much more sensitive to lighting changes than that of Lambertian objects. We consider an approach in which we use a 3D model to deduce the lighting that best matches the model to the image. In this case, an important constraint is that incident lighting should be non-negative everywhere. We...
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781243579713
  • Publisher: BiblioLabsII
  • Publication date: 9/3/2011
  • Pages: 72
  • Product dimensions: 8.00 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.19 (d)

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