The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of combat, supply, and the influence of logistics during the war in Indian Territory. This thesis examines the war in detail, particularly the role and importance of supplies. In almost every instance, provisions were a driving force for engagements within the territory. This study draws upon vast collections of primary sources, including letters, diaries, and official reports. This work also employs secondary sources to add to the interpretation and develop the historiography and necessary background. Each chapter explores a significant period in the conflict. It chronicles the events, from the withdrawal of federal troops in 1861 through the end of hostilities in 1865. The federal command learned valuable lessons during the first two years of the war. Besides ineffective leadership, the inability of the army to supply Union troops led to an eventual mutiny even after successfully defeating enemy forces in the field. By late summer 1863, federal commanders reentered Indian Territory and occupied Fort Gibson and Fort Smith, dividing the Indian Territory and forcing Confederate forces south of the Arkansas River. During 1864 the war remained stagnant. Union troops crossed the Arkansas River and drove south into the Choctaw Nation but failed to decisively defeat the enemy. Confederate troops attacked Fort Smith, driving in the federal pickets but could not force the garrison from the post. Throughout the remained of the year raids became the prominent form of warfare with both commands unable to muster the strength or supplies to drive the other from the territory. In early 1865, federal and Confederate troops prepared for renewed offensives; however, the war ended before soldiers began active campaigning. The end came quietly as officers waited their turn to surrender and moved to nearby federal garrisons to be paroled. From there, the troops returned home to begin their life after four years of war.