Throughput Accounting: A Guide to Constraint Management / Edition 1

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throughput accounting

a guide to constraint management

Every so often, a completely new idea comes along that can be described as either refreshing, controversial, or both. The theory of constraints, or constraint management, is the new, revolutionary idea that has caught the accounting profession's attention. Developed upon the theory of constraints management philosophy from the physics-based writings of Eliyahu Goldratt, the theory of constraints contends that constraints, or bottleneck resources, prevent organizations from achieving better performance and declares that a company must first determine its overriding goal, and then create a system that clearly defines the main capacity constraint that will allow it to maximize that goal.

Throughput Accounting: A Guide to Constraint Management—written by renowned accounting expert Steven Bragg—broadens the throughput accounting concept to cover every possible accounting function.

This visionary book:

  • Shows CFOs, controllers, and accounting managers how to increase efficiency and save money using throughput-related techniques
  • Discusses the impact of throughput concepts on all areas of the accounting function
  • Describes how accounting systems realigned to employ throughput concepts can issue financial statements in accordance with GAAP
  • Explores how the accounting department can assist other parts of the company by providing better measurements and reports on profit performance

The goal of throughput accounting is to increase a company's profits by focusing strictly on the management of the company's bottleneck resource. Beginning with an introduction to the concepts of constraint management, Throughput Accounting: A Guide to Constraint Management clearly explores how the traditional budgeting and capital budgeting models can be adapted to integrate throughput concepts, as well as how control systems can be designed to warn of problems related to the constraint and several supporting functions. In addition, this seminal book shows which reports and metrics to use in a throughput environment, as well as how this information can be extracted from an accounting system designed to accumulate information for reports that conform to generally accepted accounting principles.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471251095
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 4/13/2007
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 192
  • Sales rank: 1,096,863
  • Product dimensions: 9.21 (w) x 6.14 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Steven M. Bragg, CPA, CMA, CIA, CPIM, has been the chief financial officer or controller of four companies, as well as a consulting manager at Ernst & Young and auditor at Deloitte & Touche. He received a master's degree in finance from Bentley College, an MBA from Babson College, and a bachelor's degree in economics from the University of Maine. He has been the two-time president of the Colorado Mountain Club, is an avid alpine skier and mountain biker, and is a certified master diver. Mr. Bragg resides in Centennial, Colorado. He is also the author of Accounting Best Practices and Design and Maintenance of Accounting Manuals (Wiley).

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Table of Contents

About The Author.


1 Overview of the Theory of Constraints.

Definitions for the Operational Aspects of the Theory of Constraints.

The Operational Aspects of the Theory of Constraints.

Nature of the Constraint.

Definitions for the Financial Aspects of the Theory of Constraints.

The Financial Aspects of the Theory of Constraints.

The Opportunity Cost of Operations.


2 Constraint Management in the Factory.

Locating the Constraint.

Management of the Constrained Resource.

Types of Policy Constraints.

The Constraint Buffer.

The Assembly Area Buffer.

Production Scheduling.

Batch Sizes.

Machine Setups—Sales Perspective.

Machine Setups—Reduction Efforts.


3 Throughput and Traditional Cost Accounting Concepts.

The Emphasis on Cost versus Throughput.

The Emphasis on Product Cost versus System Profitability.

Variations in the Treatment of Low-Margin Products.

The Emphasis on Burdened versus Throughput Pricing.

Variations in Scrap Reporting.

Variations in Variance Analysis.

The Treatment of Direct Labor.

Inventory Valuation.

Activity-Based Costing versus Throughput Accounting.

Direct Costing versus Throughput Accounting.


4 Throughput and Financial Analysis Scenarios.

The Basic Throughput Analysis Model.

The Low Price, High Volume Decision.

The Low Price for Export Market Decision.

The Outsourced Production Decision.

The Increased Downstream Capacity Decision.

The Increased Upstream Product Processing Decision.

The Increased Sprint Capacity Decision.

The Additional Quality Workstation Decision.

The Increased Constraint Staffing Decision.

The New Product Addition Decision.

The Product Cancellation Decision.

The Altered Product Priority Decision.

The Raw Material Constraint Decision.

The Constraint in the Marketplace Decision.

The Plant Closing Decision.

Underlying Concepts of the Throughput Analysis Model.


5 Throughput in the Budgeting and Capital Budgeting Process.

Capital Budgeting with Throughput Accounting.

Budgeting for Revenue with Throughput Accounting.

Budgeting for New Products with Throughput Accounting.

Budgeting for Operating Expenses with Throughput Accounting.

Budgeting for Production Labor Expenses with Throughput Accounting.

Budgeting for Sales Department Expenses with Throughput Accounting.


6 Throughput and Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.

The Nature of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.

Differences Between Throughput and GAAP Accounting.

Income Statements for Throughput Accounting and GAAP.

Modifying the Chart of Accounts for Throughput Accounting.

Reconciling Throughput Accounting to GAAP.

Throughput Accounting and Cost-Plus Contracting.


7 Throughput and Control Systems.

Constrained Resource Controls.

Buffer Controls.

Production Scheduling Controls.


8 Throughput and Performance Measurement and Reporting Systems.

Ratio of Throughput to Constraint Time Consumption.

Total Throughput Dollars Quoted in the Period.

Ratio of Throughput Dollars Quoted to Throughput Firm Orders Received.

Sales Productivity.

Ratio of Throughput Booked to Shipped.

Trend Line of Sales Backlog Dollars.

Ratio of Maintenance Downtime to Operating Time on Constrained Resource.

Throughput of Post-Constraint Scrap.

Constraint Utilization.

Constraint Schedule Attainment.

Manufacturing Productivity.

Manufacturing Effectiveness.

Order Cycle Time.

Throughput Shipping Delay.

Inventory Turnover.

Return on Investment.

Throughput Contribution Report.

Buffer Management Report.

Buffer Hole Percentage Trend Report.

Misleading Measurements and Reports.


9 Throughput and Accounting Management.

Throughput Analysis Priorities.

The Subordination Concept.

The Duration of Capacity Constraints.

The Inventory Build Concept.

The Capacity–Buffer Interrelationship.

Investment Analysis.

Price Formulation.

Transfer Pricing.

Cost Reporting.

Staffing Decisions.

The Problem with Using Throughput Accounting for Tactical Changes.

Throughput Software and Makeshift Systems.


10 Throughput Case Studies.



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