Tier Three of the RTI Model: Problem-Solving Through a Case Study Approach

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Identify students’ learning needs and make appropriate decisions regarding instruction and intervention!

Written for RTI teams, this resource demonstrates how to conduct intensive, comprehensive evaluations of students who are struggling in the general classroom. Focusing exclusively on the third tier of the RTI model, the book:

  • Provides guidance on problem identification and analysis, progress monitoring, selection of research-based interventions, and evaluation of case study outcomes
  • Addresses both academic and behavioral challenges, including mental health issues
  • Shows how school psychologists can collaborate with other members of the RTI team
  • Provides tools for assessment and for tracking progress

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Editorial Reviews

Rachel Brown
“This book provides a timely and crucial resource for school psychologists who seek to use best practices in responsive intervention. It shows each step of tier 3 case study methods and how they relate to all other aspects of RTI.”
Jane Wagmeister

“This book offers critical, practical, coherent, comprehensive, and research-based information for schools and districts implementing an RTI framework of intervention. It maps a seamless process of support that enables school psychologists and school teams to provide tiered interventions to increase student achievement.”

Gloria Avolio De Paul
“This is a GREAT book. Comprehensive, easy to understand for psychologists. Great attitude about the process—positive, helpful.”
C. Grissom
"The case studies are relevant and incorporate the key elements of collaborative problem solving, data-based decision making, logical linkage between the stages, and fidelity of case study procedures. This is an excellent resource for educators. Highly Recommended."
Gloria Avolio DePaul
“This is a GREAT book. Comprehensive, easy to understand for psychologists. Great attitude about the process—positive, helpful.”
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781412953313
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • Publication date: 10/7/2009
  • Pages: 229
  • Sales rank: 1,287,209
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Sawyer Hunley is an associate professor, the coordinator of the School Psychology Program, and a Learning Teaching Fellow at the University of Dayton. She is chair of the National Certification Board for the National Association of School Psychologists, and was instrumental in revising the procedure for obtaining the National Credential of School Psychologists (NCSP). Hunley has served as a member of the Program Approval Board for the National Association of School Psychologists, and has participated in the writing of the last three revisions of the NASP Standards. Her professional and research interests include systems change for K-12 and higher education. Her publications and presentations have focused on the nature of the changing field of school psychology, data-based decision making, and the relationship between learning space and teaching/learning. She has over twenty years ofexperience as a school psychologist practitioner, supervisor, and faculty member.

Kathy McNamara is a professor of psychology at Cleveland State University, where she directs the School Psychology Specialist degree program. She currently serves as chair of the Ethics and Professional Practices Committee of the National Association of School Psychologists, and has been active in the leadership of the Ohio School Psychologists Association since 1984. She has published chapters on social competence and professional ethics in the NASP Best Practices series. McNamara’s research focuses on intervention-based school psychological services, and her work in this area has been published in The School Psychology Review, the Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, and Exceptional Children. She has conducted numerous trainings of school psychologists, teachers, and administrators, and consults with school districts regarding implementation of the RTI model. McNamara has served for thirty years as a school psychologist practitioner, supervisor, and faculty member.

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Table of Contents

About the Authors
1. Introduction to RTI and the Case Study Model
Context and History
The Response to Intervention Process
The Case Study Model and Prereferral Intervention
2. Assessment Principles and Practices
Assessment Methods
Assessment at Tier 1
Assessment at Tier 2
Assessing Behavior
3. Facilitating Response to Intervention in Schools
School Psychologist as Systems Change Agent
Evaluating the System
Goal Setting
RTI Implementation
4. Problem Identification
Tier 1
Tier 2
Tier 3
Behavioral Definition of the Problem
Problem Certification: Establishing the Severity of the Discrepancy Between Actual and Expected Performance
Formulating Intervention Goals
Planning Data-Collection Activities for Baseline Measurement and Progress Monitoring
Assessment of Factors Related to the Problem
5. Problem Analysis
Generating Hypotheses
Primary and Secondary Dependent Variables
Types of Hypotheses
Intervention Selection
Hypothesis Testing
6. Single-Case Design
Single-Case Design and Hypothesis Testing
Single-Case Design and Progress Monitoring
Choosing a Single-Case Design
7. Intervention
Selecting Research-Based Interventions
Intervention Integrity
Linking Interventions to Hypotheses
Characteristics of Effective Academic Interventions
Characteristics of Effective Behavioral Interventions
Targets of Intervention
8. Evaluating Case Study Outcomes
Visual Analysis
Conducting Visual Analyses
Magnitude of Change
Choosing, Calculating, and Interpreting Effect Sizes
Quality of the Outcome: Goal-Attainment Scaling
Choosing Evaluation Methods and Judging Outcomes
9. Using the Case Study to Determine Special Education Eligibility
Disability Versus Eligibility Determination
Responsiveness Versus Resistance
Using Case Study Information for Special Education Eligibility Determination
RTI and Specific Learning Disabilities
Decision Making in Eligibility Determination
Technical Adequacy of Decision-Making Practices
Eligibility Decisions
10. Program Evaluation
Case Study Structure
Case Study Rubric
Case Study: Morgan
Case Study: Reggie
Evaluation of School Psychology Services and Programs
Case Study Fidelity
Intervention Integrity
Magnitude of Change
Goal-Attainment Scaling
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