Towards Nuclear Zero

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Rarely in the atomic age have hopes for genuine progress towards disarmament been raised as high as they are now. Governments, prompted by the renewed momentum of non-proliferation and disarmament initiatives, have put nuclear policy at the top of the international agenda.

But how can countries move from warm words to meaningful action? By what means could the world be weaned from its addiction to nuclear weapons and who should undertake the task of supervising this process? This Adelphi examines practical steps for achieving progress toward disarmament, assessing the challenges and opportunities associated with achieving a world without nuclear weapons. It places the current debate over abolition in the context of urgent non-proliferation priorities, such as the need to prevent nuclear weapons from falling into the hands of extremist regimes and terrorists. It distils lessons from states that have already given up nuclear programmes and from the end of the Cold War to suggest ways of countering the efforts of Iran and North Korea to acquire nuclear weapons. For the longer term, it offers policy recommendations for moving towards a reduced global reliance on nuclear weapons.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780415595285
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 6/22/2010
  • Series: Adelphi Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 182
  • Product dimensions: 0.62 (w) x 0.92 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

David Cortright is director of Policy Studies at the Kroc Institute at the University of Notre Dame and chair of the Fourth Freedom Forum. He has served as advisor to agencies of the United Nations, international think tanks, and the governments of Canada, Finland, Sweden, and Japan. Author, co-author or editor of 15 books, Cortright has written widely on nuclear disarmament, multilateral counterterrorism, and incentives and sanctions for international peacemaking.

Raimo Väyrynen has served during his over 40-year career as Professor of International Relations and the Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Helsinki, Professor of Political Science and the John M. Regan Director of the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame, President of the Academy of Finland, and Director of the Finnish Institute of International Affairs. Väyrynen has published extensively on the theory and history of international relations, international security and arms control, and international political economy.

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Table of Contents

Preface 9

Chapter 1 Why Disarmament? Why Now? 13

Multipolarity 15

Deterrence diluted 17

Nuclear realism 19

Defining disarmament 22

The new nuclear moment 26

Chapter 2 Challenges to the Non-proliferation Regime 33

NPT purpose and history 34

An unequal burden 36

Keeping nuclear energy peaceful 38

Article VI and the NPT 40

Proliferation 42

The perils of pre-emption 45

Conclusion 46

Chapter 3 Why States Give up the Bomb 49

Determinants of denuclearisation 51

The non-proliferation norm 55

Tools of persuasion 56

Lessons from Brazil and Argentina 59

Lessons from South Africa 61

Libya comes clean 63

Ukraine gives up the bomb 66

Conclusion 68

Chapter 4 Lessons from the End of the Cold War 71

The arms control framework 72

Common security 73

The power of positive reciprocity 75

Nuclear disarmament and enhanced conventional security 77

Conclusion 80

Chapter 5 Assuring Security 83

Assurances 84

Stretching deterrence 86

Doubts about nuclear deterrence 89

No first use: reassurance for all 90

The big three 93

Russia and the West 95

Reassuring China 99

Conclusion 101

Chapter 6 Addressing Regional Challenges 103

Nuclear arming in South Asia 104

A flawed deal 106

Persuading Pyongyang 107

Iran: diffusing the dispute 112

Middle East peace 118

Conclusion 120

Chapter 7 Building Cooperation for Non-proliferation and Disarmament 123

The role of the IAEA 123

Stronger protocols 125

Political challenges 126

Resource constraints 128

Verification innovations 129

Multinationalising the fuel cycle 132

EU policies 135

Cooperative policy tools 136

CTBT and non-proliferation 141

Conclusion 144

Chapter 8 Nuclear Zero and Beyond 145

Minimum deterrence and the nuclear 'vantage point' 146

Virtual deterrence 148

Missile defences: from obstacle to solution 150

Return to Reykjavik 152

'The knowledge' as deterrent 154

The non-military foundations of security 158

A Policy Agenda for Enhancing Security Without Nuclear Weapons 163

Glossary 167

Notes 169

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