Toxic Organic Chemicals in Porous Media

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642744709
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 11/15/2011
  • Series: Ecological Studies Series, #73
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 343
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.75 (d)

Table of Contents

I: Overview of the Problem.- Introductory Comments.- 1 Dimensions of Ground Water Pollution: A Global Perspective.- 1.1 Water Management Misfortunes.- 1.2 The Emerging Perception of Quality Decline.- 1.3 Man’s Impact on Ground Water ’.- 1.4 A Current Assessment of Ground Water Pollution.- 1.5 Changing Patterns of Waste Disposal.- 1.6 Legislative Controls.- 1.7 The Cleanup.- 1.8 Public Perception.- 1.9 The Professional’s Responsibility to the Public.- 1.10 Reasonable Risk.- 1.11 The Future.- 2 Pollution Hazards from Toxic Organic Chemicals.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 The Facts.- 2.2.1 Pesticides in Groundwater.- 2.2.2 Industrial Chemicals in Groundwater.- 2.2.3 Wastewater.- 2.2.4 Mathematical Modelling of Groundwater Contamination.- 2.3 Conclusions.- 2.4 Recommendations.- References.- II: Physicochemical and Biological Interactions with Porous Media.- Introductory Comments.- 3 Interactions of Toxic Organic Chemicals with Humic Substances.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Soil and Aquatic Humic Substances.- 3.2.1 Introduction.- 3.2.2 Interactive Properties of Humic Substances.- 3.3 Toxic Organic Chemicals.- 3.3.1 Pesticides.- 3.3.2 Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons.- 3.3.3 Phthalates.- 3.4 Evidence of Interactions of TOC with Humic Substances.- 3.4.1 Soil.- 3.4.2 Waters.- 3.4.3 Sediments.- 3.5 Modes of Interaction of Humic Substances with Toxic Organic Pollutants.- 3.5.1 Adsorption.- 3.5.2 Partitioning.- 3.5.3 Solubilization Effects.- 3.5.4 Hydrolysis Effects.- 3.5.5 Photosensitization.- 3.6 Conclusions and Recommendations.- References.- 4 Surface Interactions of Toxic Organic Chemicals with Minerals.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Relevant Properties of the Mineral Components of the Solid Phase.- 4.3 Interrelation Between Components of the Solid Phase.- 4.4 The Exchange Complex.- 4.5 Interrelations Between the Phases.- 4.6 Surface Enhanced Transformations.- 4.7 Factors Affecting Surface Interactions.- 4.7.1 Temperature.- 4.7.2 Moisture Content.- 4.7.3 Intrinsic Properties of the Solid Phase.- 4.7.4 The Composition of the Exchange Complex.- 4.7.5 Other Factors.- 4.8 Mechanisms and Kinetic Considerations.- 4.8.1 A Two Phase (Solid-Liquid) System in Which the Adsorption of the Reactant Follows a Linear Adsorption Isotherm.- 4.8.2 A Two Phase (Solid-Liquid) System in Which the Catalytically Active Surface Sites are Saturated with the Reactant.- 4.8.3 A Porous Medium not in Contact with a Free Liquid Phase.- 4.9 A Unified Description of Surface Interactions.- 4.10 Enzymatic Reactions.- 4.11 General Discussion and Conclusions.- References.- 5 Abiotic Transformations of Toxic Organic Chemicals in the Liquid Phase and Sediments.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Transformations in the Water Column.- 5.3 Transformations in Sediments.- 5.3.1 Hydrolysis.- 5.3.2 Redox Reactions.- 5.4 Transformations in Groundwaters.- 5.4.1 Hydrolysis.- 5.4.2 Redox Reactions.- 5.5 Future Direction.- References.- III: Pesticides in Porous Media.- Introductory Comments.- 6 Predicting the Mobility and Availability of Toxic Organic Chemicals.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Current Methods for Predicting Adsorption.- 6.3 Molecular Connectivity.- 6.4 MC-SAR Studies.- 6.5 The Need for Future Work.- 6.6 Summary.- References.- 7 Partition and Adsorption on Soil and Mobility of Organic Pollutants and Pesticides.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Sorption by Soil in Aqueous Systems.- 7.3 Sorption by Soil from Organic Solvents.- 7.4 Sorption by Soil from the Vapor Phase.- 7.5 Influence of Soil Sorption on Pollutant and Pesticide Activity.- References.- 8 Sorption and Transport of Organic Pollutants at Waste Disposal Sites.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Solubility in Complex Solvents.- 8.2.1 Solubility in Mixed Solvents.- 8.2.2 Solubility in Multi-Phasic Solvents.- 8.3 Sorption from Complex Solvents.- 8.3.1 Sorption from Mixed Solvents.- 8.3.2 Sorption from Biphasic Solvents.- 8.3.3 Sorption from Complex Solvents Containing PMOS and CMOS.- 8.4 Sorption from Aqueous Solutions of Multi-Sorbate Mixtures.- 8.5 Transport in the Presence of Complex Solvents.- 8.5.1 Transport in Mixed Solvents.- 8.5.2 Transport in Biphasic Solvents.- 8.5.3 Transport in Miscible and Immiscible Solvents.- 8.6 Transport of Mixtures of Organic Pollutants.- References.- 9 Accelerated Degradation of Pesticides.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Accelerated Degradation of Pesticides.- 9.3 Assessment of Accelerated Degradation.- 9.4 Mechanisms of Accelerated Degradation.- 9.5 Persistence of Accelerated Degradation.- 9.6 Cross Accelerated Degradation.- 9.7 Control and Management of Accelerated Degradation.- 9.8 Conclusions and Prospects.- References.- IV: Petroleum Hydrocarbons.- Introductory Comments.- 10 On the Behavior of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Unsaturated Zone: Abiotic Aspects.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Properties of the Interacting Materials.- 10.2.1 Crude Oils and Petroleum Products.- 10.3 Partitioning Between Gaseous, Aqueous, and Solid Phases.- 10.3.1 Migration into the Gaseous Phase.- 10.3.2 Dissolution in the Water Phase.- 10.3.3 Retention by the Solid Phase.- 10.4 Surface Degradation.- 10.5 Multiphase Transport.- 10.6 Conclusions.- References.- 11 Transport of Organic Pollutants in a Multiphase System.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Classification of LH According to Contamination Criteria.- 11.3 Introduction of the Pollutant into the Subsurface Water.- 11.4 Migration of LHin the Unsaturated Zone.- 11.5 Migration of LH in the Saturated Zone.- 11.6 Modelling Procedures.- 11.6.1 Gross Control Volumes.- 11.6.2 Differential Control Volumes Referring to the Whole Flow Field.- 11.6.3 Differential Control Volumes Referring to Various Parts of the Flow Field.- 11.7 Determination of the Flow Field Characteristics.- 11.8 Practical Aspects.- References.- 12 Biochemical Aspects of Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in Sediments and Soils.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Biochemical Considerations.- 12.3 Application of Results of Biochemical Considerations.- 12.4 Laboratory Experiments with Fresh Marine Sediment.- 12.5 Laboratory Experiments with a Standardized and Inoculated Sediment Mixture.- 12.6 Anaerobic Degradation.- 12.7 Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in Soils.- 12.8 Conclusions.- References.- V: Restoration of the Unsaturated Zone and Groundwater.- Introductory Comments.- 13 Manipulation of the Vadose Zone to Enhance Toxic Organic Chemical Removal.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Physical Methods.- 13.2.1 Leaching.- 13.2.2 Enhanced Volatilization.- 13.2.3 Electrokinetics.- 13.3 Chemical Methods.- 13.4 Biological Methods.- 13.4.1 Stimulation of Native Organisms.- 13.4.2 Addition of Altered Organisms.- 13.5 Conclusions and Future Research Needs.- References.- 14 The Relative Importance of pH, Charge, and Water Solubility on the Movement of Organic Solutes in Soils and Ground Water.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Experimental.- 14.2.1 Overview of the Injection Site.- 14.2.2 Properties of the Ogallala Aquifer near Stanton, Texas.- 14.2.3 Design and Construction of Injection and Observation Wells.- 14.2.4 Experimental Sequence.- 14.2.5 Solute or Tracer Addition and Observation Well Sampling.- 14.2.6 On Site Analyses in the Mobile Laboratory.- 14.2.7 Laboratory Analyses.- 14.3 Hypotheses to be Tested.- 14.4 Results and Discussion.- 14.5 Conclusions.- References.- 15 Phohemical Inactivation of Organic Pollutants from Water.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.1.1 Dye-Sensitized Photooxidation Reactions.- 15.2 Phohemical Inactivation of Industrial Organic Pollutants.- 15.2.1 Photolysis of Uracil Derivatives.- 15.2.2 Photolysis of s-Triazine Derivatives.- 15.2.3 Photolysis of Anilide Derivatives.- 15.3 Phohemical Inactivation of Biological Pollutants.- 15.3.1 Laboratory Experiments.- 15.3.2 Pilot Plant Experiments.- 15.4 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 16 Restoration of Aquifers Polluted with Hydrocarbons.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 The Water Works “Durlacher Wald”.- 16.3 Treatment Results.- 16.4 Microbiological Aspects of the Treatment Used.- 16.5 Summary and Conclusions.- References.

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