Toxic Plants and Other Natural Toxicants / Edition 1

Toxic Plants and Other Natural Toxicants / Edition 1

by Tam Garland, Alberto C Barr

ISBN-10: 0851992633

ISBN-13: 9780851992631

Pub. Date: 01/28/1998

Publisher: CAB International North America

Toxic plants and other natural toxicants have a variety of roles in the fields of human health, medical research and the production of safe food and also represent an economic problem in terms of animal health and crop production. Estimates of economic impact on livestock have ranged in the millions of dollars in countries such as Australia and the United States.

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Toxic plants and other natural toxicants have a variety of roles in the fields of human health, medical research and the production of safe food and also represent an economic problem in terms of animal health and crop production. Estimates of economic impact on livestock have ranged in the millions of dollars in countries such as Australia and the United States. This book brings together applied and fundamental research from botanists, chemists, biochemists, agricultural scientists, veterinarians and physicians and advice from regulatory bodies.

It consists of more than 100 edited papers from the Fifth International Symposium on Poisonous Plants, held in Texas in May 1997. All aspects of poisonous plants, mycotoxicoses and herbal intoxications are covered. Their adverse effects are described, such as fatalities, reduced or failed reproduction, fetotoxicity, spontaneous abortions, deformities, reduced productivity and organ-specific toxicity. Methods of detection, isolation and identification of the chemical compounds responsible are included. The biochemistry of the plant-associated toxins and elucidation of their mechanism of action is investigated, including the protocols for management or eradication, immunization programs, behaviour modification, withholding periods for metabolic detoxification, regulatory advice concerning human usage of natural products and advice concerning toxin-residue in agricultural produce. The development of non-toxic strains of plants for use as fodder is also discussed. This book is essential reading for toxicologists concerned with animal and human health, food industry regulators and plant scientists.

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CAB International North America
Publication date:
Edition description:
New Edition
Product dimensions:
6.75(w) x 9.25(h) x 1.50(d)

Table of Contents

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Dedication to Dr. Alan Seawright
Regional and Epidemiological Issues
1Recently Encountered Poisonous Plants of Rio Grande do Sul and Uruguay1
2Tribute to Dr. Wayne Binns (1911-1994)6
3Genesis to Genesis: A Historic Perspective of Plant Toxicology9
4Poisonous Plant Names13
5A Tribute to Dr. James W. Dollahite17
6Locoweed Research to Reduce Poisoning on Western U.S. Rangelands19
7Use of a Native Insect to Deter Grazing and Prevent Poisoning in Livestock23
8Estimating Lethal Dose of Larkspur for Cattle29
9Control Technology Selection for Poisonous Plants with the EXSEL Expert System35
10Management and Edaphic Factors Related with the Incidence of Marsh Ragwort40
11Management, Environmental and Livestock Interactions Impact on Perennial Ryegrass/Neotyphodium/Livestock Associations45
12Development of an Immunoassay for Corynetoxins49
13[[superscript 14]C]Senecionine Production in Senecio vulgaris Root Culture55
Cardiopulmonary System
14Hematological Changes in Sheep with Experimentally Produced Acute and Chronic Lupinosis62
15Atypical Pneumonia Associated with Ryegrass Staggers in Calves69
16Dissimilatory Metabolism by Ruminal Microbes: Impact on Ruminant Toxicoses73
17Yew (Taxus spp.) Poisoning in Domestic Animals78
18Pasture Mediated Acute Bovine Pulmonary Emphysema and Edema in British Columbia81
19A Study of Persin, the Mammary Cell Necrosis Agent from Avocado (Persea americana), and its Furan Derivative in Lactating Mice86
20Bioassay-directed Isolation of Active Principle from Lavendula stoechas91
21Analysis of Gossypol in Whole Cottonseed and Rumen Fluid by HPLC97
22The Excretion of Minerals from Broilers Fed Tannic Acid, Polyethylene Glycol and Protein101
23Influence of Tannic Acid on Amino Acid Digestibility in Broilers106
24Effect of Polyethylene Glycol on the Chelation of Trace Elements by Tannins111
25The Use of Copper Boli for Cattle Grazing High-molybdenum Forage115
26A Newly Discovered Toxic Plant, Stemodia kingii, in Western Australia120
27Site and Sequence Selectivity of DNA Binding by Divalent Cadmium: Evidence for Inhibition of BPDE-induced DNA Lesions in the Major Groove but Not in the Biologically Relevant Minor Groove125
28Monitoring of Physiological and Pathological Changes in Turkey Poults Fed Leaves of Potentially Cardiomyotoxic Nerium oleander and Persea americana131
29Enzootic Geophagia and Hepatitis of Calves and the Possible Role of Manganese Poisoning137
30The Feeding of Lupin Grain Can Cause Rumen Acidosis and Rumenitis143
31Effects of Dietary Cottonseed Meal and Cottonseed Oil on Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Protozoa149
32Detoxification Potential of a New Species of Ruminal Bacteria that Metabolize Nitrate and Naturally Occurring Nitrotoxins154
Diagnostic/Treatment Issues
33Vitamin K1 Therapy of Ferula communis variety brevifolia Toxicosis in Sheep159
34Development of a Vaccine Against Annual Ryegrass Toxicity165
35Conditioned Food Aversions to Oxalic Acid in the Food Plants of Sheep and Goats169
36Fungi Microbiota and Oxalate Formation on Brachiaria brizantha and their Possible Toxic Effects on Calves Kept at Pasture without Supplementation of Calcium and Magnesium174
37Protective Effects of Cyclodextrins on Tunicaminyluracil Toxicity179
38Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Detoxification by an Ovine Ruminal Consortium and its Use as a Ruminal Supplement in Cattle185
39A Comparison of a Nursling Rat Bioassay and an ELISA to Determine the Amount of Phomopsins in Lupin Stubbles191
40Towards a Commercial Vaccine Against Lupinosis196
41Long-term Effects of Acute or Chronic Poisoning by Tunicaminyluracil Toxins201
42Experimental Modification of Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) Toxicity205
43Treatment and Prevention of Livestock Poisoning: Where to from Here?211
44Toxicity and Diagnosis of Oleander (Nerium oleander) Poisoning in Livestock215
45Are there Toxic and Non-toxic Varieties of Eupatorium rugosum Houttuyn?220
46The Chemical Identification of Plant Toxins in Ingesta and Forage223
47Conditioned Food Aversion: A Management Tool to Prevent Livestock Poisoning227
48Development and Validation of a Multiresidue Alkaloid Screen233
49Tolerance in Cattle to Timber Milkvetch (Astragalus miser var. serotinus) due to Changes in Rumen Microbial Populations239
50Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Analysis of Toxic Compounds in Larkspurs and Milkvetches243
Miscellaneous Topics
51DNA Alkylation Properties of Dehydromonocrotaline: Sequence Selective N7 Guanine Alkylation and Heat and Alkali-resistant Multiple Crosslinks249
52Acute and Chronic Toxicity Induced by Activated Ptaquiloside in Rats: Comparison of Pathogenesis due to Oral and Intravenous Administrations255
53Immunotoxic Effects of Selenium in Mammals260
54In vivo and in vitro Effects of L-Canavanine and L-Canaline267
55The Isolation of a Hepatotoxic Compound from Eupatorium adenophorum (Spreng) and Some Preliminary Studies on its Mode of Action271