Toxic Plants and Other Natural Toxicants / Edition 1

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Overview

Toxic plants and other natural toxicants have a variety of roles in the fields of human health, medical research and the production of safe food and also represent an economic problem in terms of animal health and crop production. Estimates of economic impact on livestock have ranged in the millions of dollars in countries such as Australia and the United States. This book brings together applied and fundamental research from botanists, chemists, biochemists, agricultural scientists, veterinarians and physicians and advice from regulatory bodies.

It consists of more than 100 edited papers from the Fifth International Symposium on Poisonous Plants, held in Texas in May 1997. All aspects of poisonous plants, mycotoxicoses and herbal intoxications are covered. Their adverse effects are described, such as fatalities, reduced or failed reproduction, fetotoxicity, spontaneous abortions, deformities, reduced productivity and organ-specific toxicity. Methods of detection, isolation and identification of the chemical compounds responsible are included. The biochemistry of the plant-associated toxins and elucidation of their mechanism of action is investigated, including the protocols for management or eradication, immunization programs, behaviour modification, withholding periods for metabolic detoxification, regulatory advice concerning human usage of natural products and advice concerning toxin-residue in agricultural produce. The development of non-toxic strains of plants for use as fodder is also discussed. This book is essential reading for toxicologists concerned with animal and human health, food industry regulators and plant scientists.

The book contains black-and-white illustrations.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"Brings together applied and fundamental research from botanists, biochemists, agricultural scientists, veterinarians, and physicians, plus advice from regulatory bodies, on all aspects of poisonous plants, mycotoxicoses, and herbal intoxications. Describes adverse effects of these substances, and details methods of detection, isolation, and identification of the chemical compounds responsible. The biochemistry of plant-associated toxins and their mechanisms of action are investigated, and protocols are given for management or eradication, immunization programs, and withholding periods for metabolic detoxification. Of interest to toxicologists, food industry regulators, and plant scientists. Chapters originated as papers at a May 1997 symposium held in Texas. Garland is affiliated with the Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology at Texas A&M University."--SciTech Book News

Booknews
Brings together applied and fundamental research from botanists, biochemists, agricultural scientists, veterinarians, and physicians, plus advice from regulatory bodies, on all aspects of poisonous plants, mycotoxicoses, and herbal intoxications. Describes adverse effects of these substances, and details methods of detection, isolation, and identification of the chemical compounds responsible. The biochemistry of plant-associated toxins and their mechanisms of action are investigated, and protocols are given for management or eradication, immunization programs, and withholding periods for metabolic detoxification. Of interest to toxicologists, food industry regulators, and plant scientists. Chapters originated as papers at a May 1997 symposium held in Texas. Garland is affiliated with the Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology at Texas A&M University. Distributed by Oxford University Press. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780851992631
  • Publisher: CAB International North America
  • Publication date: 1/28/1998
  • Series: CABI
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 608
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
Abbreviations
Dedication to Dr. Alan Seawright
Regional and Epidemiological Issues
1 Recently Encountered Poisonous Plants of Rio Grande do Sul and Uruguay 1
2 Tribute to Dr. Wayne Binns (1911-1994) 6
3 Genesis to Genesis: A Historic Perspective of Plant Toxicology 9
4 Poisonous Plant Names 13
5 A Tribute to Dr. James W. Dollahite 17
6 Locoweed Research to Reduce Poisoning on Western U.S. Rangelands 19
7 Use of a Native Insect to Deter Grazing and Prevent Poisoning in Livestock 23
8 Estimating Lethal Dose of Larkspur for Cattle 29
9 Control Technology Selection for Poisonous Plants with the EXSEL Expert System 35
10 Management and Edaphic Factors Related with the Incidence of Marsh Ragwort 40
11 Management, Environmental and Livestock Interactions Impact on Perennial Ryegrass/Neotyphodium/Livestock Associations 45
12 Development of an Immunoassay for Corynetoxins 49
13 [[superscript 14]C]Senecionine Production in Senecio vulgaris Root Culture 55
Cardiopulmonary System
14 Hematological Changes in Sheep with Experimentally Produced Acute and Chronic Lupinosis 62
15 Atypical Pneumonia Associated with Ryegrass Staggers in Calves 69
16 Dissimilatory Metabolism by Ruminal Microbes: Impact on Ruminant Toxicoses 73
17 Yew (Taxus spp.) Poisoning in Domestic Animals 78
18 Pasture Mediated Acute Bovine Pulmonary Emphysema and Edema in British Columbia 81
19 A Study of Persin, the Mammary Cell Necrosis Agent from Avocado (Persea americana), and its Furan Derivative in Lactating Mice 86
20 Bioassay-directed Isolation of Active Principle from Lavendula stoechas 91
21 Analysis of Gossypol in Whole Cottonseed and Rumen Fluid by HPLC 97
22 The Excretion of Minerals from Broilers Fed Tannic Acid, Polyethylene Glycol and Protein 101
23 Influence of Tannic Acid on Amino Acid Digestibility in Broilers 106
24 Effect of Polyethylene Glycol on the Chelation of Trace Elements by Tannins 111
25 The Use of Copper Boli for Cattle Grazing High-molybdenum Forage 115
26 A Newly Discovered Toxic Plant, Stemodia kingii, in Western Australia 120
27 Site and Sequence Selectivity of DNA Binding by Divalent Cadmium: Evidence for Inhibition of BPDE-induced DNA Lesions in the Major Groove but Not in the Biologically Relevant Minor Groove 125
28 Monitoring of Physiological and Pathological Changes in Turkey Poults Fed Leaves of Potentially Cardiomyotoxic Nerium oleander and Persea americana 131
29 Enzootic Geophagia and Hepatitis of Calves and the Possible Role of Manganese Poisoning 137
30 The Feeding of Lupin Grain Can Cause Rumen Acidosis and Rumenitis 143
31 Effects of Dietary Cottonseed Meal and Cottonseed Oil on Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Protozoa 149
32 Detoxification Potential of a New Species of Ruminal Bacteria that Metabolize Nitrate and Naturally Occurring Nitrotoxins 154
Diagnostic/Treatment Issues
33 Vitamin K1 Therapy of Ferula communis variety brevifolia Toxicosis in Sheep 159
34 Development of a Vaccine Against Annual Ryegrass Toxicity 165
35 Conditioned Food Aversions to Oxalic Acid in the Food Plants of Sheep and Goats 169
36 Fungi Microbiota and Oxalate Formation on Brachiaria brizantha and their Possible Toxic Effects on Calves Kept at Pasture without Supplementation of Calcium and Magnesium 174
37 Protective Effects of Cyclodextrins on Tunicaminyluracil Toxicity 179
38 Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Detoxification by an Ovine Ruminal Consortium and its Use as a Ruminal Supplement in Cattle 185
39 A Comparison of a Nursling Rat Bioassay and an ELISA to Determine the Amount of Phomopsins in Lupin Stubbles 191
40 Towards a Commercial Vaccine Against Lupinosis 196
41 Long-term Effects of Acute or Chronic Poisoning by Tunicaminyluracil Toxins 201
42 Experimental Modification of Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) Toxicity 205
43 Treatment and Prevention of Livestock Poisoning: Where to from Here? 211
44 Toxicity and Diagnosis of Oleander (Nerium oleander) Poisoning in Livestock 215
45 Are there Toxic and Non-toxic Varieties of Eupatorium rugosum Houttuyn? 220
46 The Chemical Identification of Plant Toxins in Ingesta and Forage 223
47 Conditioned Food Aversion: A Management Tool to Prevent Livestock Poisoning 227
48 Development and Validation of a Multiresidue Alkaloid Screen 233
49 Tolerance in Cattle to Timber Milkvetch (Astragalus miser var. serotinus) due to Changes in Rumen Microbial Populations 239
50 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Analysis of Toxic Compounds in Larkspurs and Milkvetches 243
Miscellaneous Topics
51 DNA Alkylation Properties of Dehydromonocrotaline: Sequence Selective N7 Guanine Alkylation and Heat and Alkali-resistant Multiple Crosslinks 249
52 Acute and Chronic Toxicity Induced by Activated Ptaquiloside in Rats: Comparison of Pathogenesis due to Oral and Intravenous Administrations 255
53 Immunotoxic Effects of Selenium in Mammals 260
54 In vivo and in vitro Effects of L-Canavanine and L-Canaline 267
55 The Isolation of a Hepatotoxic Compound from Eupatorium adenophorum (Spreng) and Some Preliminary Studies on its Mode of Action 271
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