Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests

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During the 1950s and 1960s, the U.S. Army conducted atmospheric dispersion tests in many American cities using fluorescent particles of zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnCdS) to develop and verify meteorological models to estimate the dispersal of aerosols. Upon learning of the tests, many citizens and some public health officials in the affected cities raised concerns about the health consequences of the tests. This book assesses the public health effects of the Army's tests, including the toxicity of ZnCdS, the toxicity of surrogate cadmium compounds, the environmental fate of ZnCdS, the extent of public exposures from the dispersion tests, and the risks of such exposures.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780309057837
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • Publication date: 5/30/1997
  • Pages: 380

Table of Contents

Summary 1
1 Introduction 17
2 Input from the Public 25
3 Toxicity and Related Data on Zinc Cadmium Sulfide 32
4 Toxicity and Related Data on Selected Cadmium Compounds 39
5 Exposure Assessment 57
6 Risk Characterization of Exposures to Zinc Cadmium Sulfide 67
7 Scientific Feasibility of Epidemiologic Study 82
8 Conclusions and Recommendations 94
References 100
App. A Historical Background of the U.S. Biological Warfare Program 112
App. B Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests 122
App. C Correspondence from the Army 296
App. D Interaction of Zinc and Cadmium and Toxicity of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Activators 299
App. E Public Meetings Agendas 302
App. F Sampling and Analytic Methods for Zinc Cadmium Sulfide 311
App. G Review of AEHA Risk Assessment Reports on Zinc Cadmium Sulfide 316
App. H Review of EPA, ATSDR, and CDC Comments on the Army's Risk Assessment Reports on Zinc Cadmium Sulfide 335
App. I Cadmium Exposure Assessment, Transport, and Environmental Fate 338
Glossary 361
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