Trade and the Environment in General Equilibrium: Evidence from Developing Economies / Edition 1

Trade and the Environment in General Equilibrium: Evidence from Developing Economies / Edition 1

by John Beghin
     
 

ISBN-10: 1402004796

ISBN-13: 9781402004797

Pub. Date: 02/28/2002

Publisher: Springer Netherlands

This book is a considerable step towards a better-informed debate between free-trader and environmentalist interests brought on in international trade negotiations. It presents results of an empirical investigation of the interaction between growth, international trade, and the environment in Chile, China, Costa Rica, Indonesia, Morocco, and Vietnam, using a common

Overview

This book is a considerable step towards a better-informed debate between free-trader and environmentalist interests brought on in international trade negotiations. It presents results of an empirical investigation of the interaction between growth, international trade, and the environment in Chile, China, Costa Rica, Indonesia, Morocco, and Vietnam, using a common computable general equilibrium modelling approach.

The book meshes analytical results, methodology, and detailed empirical analysis in a comprehensive appraisal of the interface between outward-oriented growth and the environment, with particular reference to the policy challenges faced by developing countries. The latter arguably have the greatest stake in successful co-ordination of free trade and domestic environmental policies to achieve higher living standards while protecting their environment. The conjecture of inevitable growth-environment trade-off is not sustained by the analysis. The book provides reliable guidance toward constructive reconciliation of economic and environmental aspirations.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781402004797
Publisher:
Springer Netherlands
Publication date:
02/28/2002
Series:
Economy and Environment Series, #21
Edition description:
2002
Pages:
275
Product dimensions:
6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

List of Figuresxi
List of Tablesxi
List of Acronyms and Abbreviationsxiv
List of Contributorsxvi
Prefacexix
Part AMethodology and Modelling
Chapter 1.Globalisation and the Environment from a Development Perspective
1.Introduction3
2.Findings from Our Case Studies5
Chile5
Costa Rica6
China7
Indonesia9
Mexico9
Morocco11
Vietnam12
3.Conclusions12
References15
Chapter 2.Trade and Environmental Policy Instruments and Reforms
1.Introduction17
2.Non-technical Description of Results for a Small, Open, Distorted Economy18
Policy Reform to Address Pollution20
Coordinated Trade and Pollution Reforms22
Extensions of the Results23
3.Should Environmental Policies Be Harmonised?24
4.Policy Scenarios Considered in the Case Studies24
5.Feasible Environmental Policy in Developing Economies25
6.Concluding Remarks27
Notes29
References30
Chapter 3.Empirical Modelling of Trade and the Environment
1.Introduction31
2.Overview of the Model32
Production32
Consumption and Closure Rule32
Foreign Trade33
Dynamic Features and Calibration33
3.Model Description34
Production34
Income Distribution39
Household Consumption and Savings41
Other Final Demands43
Government Revenues and Saving45
Trade, Domestic Supply, and Demand47
Equilibrium Conditions52
Determination of Vintage Output and Capital Market Equilibrium53
Macro Closure56
Dynamics57
Emissions61
Country-Specific Details64
4.Concluding Remarks67
Notes69
Appendix AFigures71
Appendix BThe CES/CET Functions77
References78
Chapter 4.Input-Based Pollution Estimates for Environmental Assessment in Developing Countries
1.Introduction79
2.Data and Estimation Methods80
3.Results84
Total Toxic Pollution84
Bio-accumulative Toxic Pollution86
Other Air Pollutants87
Other Water Pollutants90
Implementation of the Results for Other Countries90
4.Some Comparative Estimates92
5.Conclusions and Extensions104
Notes106
References107
Chapter 5.Modelling Health Impacts of Air Pollution and Their Valuation: An Application to Santiago, Chile
1.Introduction109
2.Air Pollution Emissions111
Total Suspended Particulates111
Sulphur Dioxide112
Nitrogen Dioxide113
Carbon Monoxide113
Volatile Organic Compounds113
Lead114
3.Dispersion114
4.Estimation of Health Endpoints116
5.Valuation of Health Impacts120
Morbidity120
Mortality122
6.An Application to Health Damages in Santiago Induced by Policy Reforms129
7.Concluding Comments132
Notes134
References135
Part BCase Studies
Chapter 6.Growth, Trade, and the Environment Nexus in Chile: A Comprehensive Assessment
1.Introduction139
2.The TEQUILA Model for the Chilean Study141
3.Policy Reform Scenarios143
4.Results from Policy Reform Simulations145
Effluent Taxes145
Trade Integration150
Coordinated Trade Integration and Environmental Protection154
5.Conclusions159
Notes164
References165
Chapter 7.Trade Liberalisation and the Environment in China
1.Introduction167
2.Model Modification for China170
3.Simulation Scenarios171
4.Results172
5.Concluding Remarks183
Notes185
References186
Chapter 8.Coordinated Trade and Environmental Policies for Morocco
1.Introduction187
2.Economic Activity and the Environment in Morocco188
3.The Macroeconomic Reform Scenario192
Growth and Emissions193
4.Trade and Environmental Policy Scenarios195
Liberalised Trade with the European Community196
Environmental Policies201
Combined Environmental and Commercial Policies202
5.Conclusions205
Notes207
References208
Chapter 9.Outward Orientation, Growth, and the Environment in Vietnam
1.Introduction209
Vietnam's Economic and Environmental Conditions210
2.Simulation Scenarios211
3.Simulation Results213
Environmental Taxes213
Trade Liberalisation216
Coordinated Policy Reforms221
4.Concluding Remarks224
Notes230
References231
Chapter 10.Synthesis of Case Studies on Indonesia, Mexico, and Costa Rica
1.Introduction233
2.The Studies233
3.Findings235
Trade Integration235
Environmental Policy240
Coordinated Trade Integration and Environmental Policies244
4.Implications and Conclusion246
Notes248
Appendix AList of Industries and Pollutants249
References250
Chapter 11.Conclusions
1.Introduction251
2.Guidelines from Analytical Results251
3.Methodological Contributions252
4.Common Stylised Facts253
5.Country-Specific Findings254
6.Future Research Directions255
Notes257
References258
Index259

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