Trade Rules in the Making: Challenges in Regional and Multilateral Negotiations / Edition 1

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In April 1998 negotiations were launched to create a free trade area among thirty-four countries in the Western Hemisphere. The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) will eliminate barriers to trade in goods and services and will remove restrictions on investment among the countries of North, Central, and South America and the Caribbean. At the same time, negotiators in the World Trade Organization (WTO) are preparing to begin talks on agriculture and services, with the possibility of a new round of WTO negotiations. Trade policymakers are confronted with a wide range of complex issues and various forums for trade liberalization. Modern trade negotiations no longer focus only on barriers to trade in goods, but include a wide array of issues.

This volume aims to clarify these issues. Contributors first address themes, including the evolution of regional arrangements in the Western Hemisphere and the relationship between regional trade arrangements and the multilateral trading system. Robert Hudec provides an in-depth analysis of the provisions and future implications of Article XXIV, the WTO article that regulates regional arrangements; Robert Lawrence examines regional arrangements and their relationship to the multilateral trading system; and Miguel Rodríguez Mendoza tests several Latin American arrangements to see whether they comply with the WTO criteria. Other contributors discuss key components of the current trade policy agenda, including market access approaches, trade in services, investment, competition policy, intellectual property rights, trade remedy laws, and dispute settlement. Also examined are smaller economies in trade negotiations, and labor and the environment. The book serves both as an analytical examination of regionalism and multilateralism and a primer for international trade negotiators.

Copublished with the Organization of American States

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"Useful to students of international trade policy or to professionals working in this area.
" —K. Clausing, Reed College, Reed College

From a May 1998 conference in Washington, DC sponsored by the Organization of American States, Georgetown University, and the World Trade Organization, 21 studies clarify issues to make it easier for smaller countries in the western hemisphere to deregulate and privatize their economy. Regionalism and multilateral rules, preferential trade and regional agreements, enhancing trade rules, and the newest trade policy issues are the themes. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780815756798
  • Publisher: Brookings Institution Press and The General Secretariat of the Organization of American States
  • Publication date: 12/28/1999
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 546
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Miguel Rodríguez Mendoza is a visiting scholar at Georgetown University. Patrick Low is director of research at the World Trade Organization. Barbara Kotschwar is senior trade specialist at the Organization of American States.

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Table of Contents

Trade Rules in the Making: An Overview 1
Pt. 1 Regionalism and Multilateral Rules
1 Regionalism, Multilateralism, and Deeper Integration: Changing Paradigms for Developing Countries 23
2 Regionalism and WTO Rules: Problems in the Fine Art of Discriminating Fairly 47
3 Dealing with Latin America's New Regionalism 81
Pt. 2 Preferential Trade and Regional Agreements
4 Developing Countries and Trade Preferences 109
5 Small Countries and the Free Trade Area of the Americas 134
6 Preferential and Nonpreferential Trade Flows in World Trade 159
7 Regional Trade Arrangements: Lessons from Past Experiences 180
Pt. 3 Enhancing Trade Rules
8 Multilateral Approaches to Market Access Negotiations 205
9 Multilateral and Regional Liberalization of Trade in Services 235
10 Rules of Origin in Free Trade Agreements in the Americas 261
11 Standards and Technical Barriers to Trade in the Free Trade Area of the America 280
12 Import-Relief Laws: The Role of Safeguards 302
13 How Long Can You Tread Water? The Anti-Economics of Trade Remedy Law 322
14 Antidumping Policy as a System of Law 341
15 The GATT/WTO Dispute Settlement System and the Negotiations for a Free Trade Area of the Americas 365
Pt. 4 The Newest Trade Policy Issues
16 Toward an Investment Agreement in the Americas: Building on the Existing Consensus 389
17 Approaches to Competition Policy 417
18 Competition Policy and Regional Trade Agreements 444
19 Opening Government Procurement Markets 462
20 Labor Rights 487
21 Trade and the Environment 511
Contributors 525
Index 527
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