Traditions of the Rabbis from the Era of the New Testament: Prayer and Agriculture

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Foreword by Birger GerhardssonTraditions of the Rabbis from the Era of the New Testament (TRENT) is a major new six-volume work of scholarship that provides an exhaustive collection of early rabbinic traditions and commentary on their relevance to the New Testament. Focusing on 63 rabbinic traditions central to ancient Jewish life, David Instone-Brewer's massive study provides significant insights into Jewish thought and practice prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 C.E. For each rabbinic tradition...
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Overview

Foreword by Birger GerhardssonTraditions of the Rabbis from the Era of the New Testament (TRENT) is a major new six-volume work of scholarship that provides an exhaustive collection of early rabbinic traditions and commentary on their relevance to the New Testament. Focusing on 63 rabbinic traditions central to ancient Jewish life, David Instone-Brewer's massive study provides significant insights into Jewish thought and practice prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 C.E. For each rabbinic tradition considered, the supporting Hebrew source text is provided side by side with an English translation. Instone-Brewer also presents evidence that exists for accurately dating these rabbinic sources -- a critical task recently advanced by modern dating techniques. He goes on to thoroughly discuss the meaning and importance of each rabbinic tradition for Second Temple Judaism, also analyzing any echoes or direct appearances of the tradition in the New Testament writings. In this first TRENT volume, Instone-Brewer examines texts relating to prayer and agriculture. The first section includes texts dealing with when and how to recite the Shema, the Eighteen Benedictions, and other blessings and prayers. The second section contains texts on a wide variety of considerations related to agriculture, such as the "leftovers" to which the poor were entitled, tithing, "mixed" foods and other products, Sabbath Year activities, offerings, and so on. Sure to be a standard reference work for students of both Judaism and Christianity, TRENT provides for the first time a ready resource on rabbinic traditions originating in the New Testament era. Features of TRENT: Discusses 63 tractates that illuminate ancient Jewish lifeFollows the traditional order of subject divisions in the MishnahPresents Hebrew/Aramaic texts in parallel with a literal English translation and notes on variantsProvides dating evidence along with degree of certaintyOffers commentary on the meaning and significance of rabbinic traditions in Second Temple JudaismHighlights the presence of rabbinic traditions in the New Testament writingsIncludes a full glossary of rabbinic terminology
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780802847621
  • Publisher: Eerdmans, William B. Publishing Company
  • Publication date: 11/28/2004
  • Pages: 482
  • Product dimensions: 6.70 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Table of Contents

Foreword XVII
Preface XVIII
Abbreviations XX
Introduction to Rabbinic Traditions 1
The Authors of Rabbinic Literature 3
Collections of Rabbinic Traditions 6
The Structure of Rabbinic Law 12
Editions and Translations 16
Rabbinic Generations 18
Dating Rabbinic Traditions 28
Tractate Berakhot: Blessings (Prayer)
Definitions and Outline 41
M.Ber.1.1-2 When to recite the Shema 42
M.Ber.2.5-3.6 Who recites the Shema? 48
M.Ber.4.1-4 When to pray the Eighteen Benedictions 52
M.Ber.4.5-5.2 How you should pray the Eighteen 63
M.Ber.5.3-5 Errors when you pray the Eighteen 67
M.Ber.6.1-8 Blessings and Grace after Meals 72
M.Ber.7.1-5 Saying Grace after Meals for a group 77
M.Ber.8.1-8 School rulings concerning meals 84
M.Ber.9.1-5 Other blessings 92
The Eighteen Benedictions 96
Summary and Conclusions 118
Tractate Peah: Leftovers Of Harvest For The Poor
Definitions and Outline 121
M.Pea.1.1-3 What proportion of a crop is leftovers? 122
M.Pea.1.4-6 Crops subject to leftovers, and to tithes 127
M.Pea.2.1-4 What defines a single area for leftovers? 130
M.Pea.2.5-3.4 Borders of a mixed crop 132
M.Pea.3.5-8 Multiple ownership of a field 138
M.Pea.4.1-9 Restricting access of the poor to leftovers 138
M.Pea.4.10-11 Defining 'gleanings' 141
M.Pea.5.1-3 Poor portion which became mixed with the crop 141
M.Pea.5.4-6 Who is a 'poor' person? 143
M.Pea.5.7-6.6 When is a sheaf forgotten? 144
M.Pea.6.7-7.2 Unharvested crop which cannot be forgotten 152
M.Pea.7.3 Peret - separated fruit 153
M.Pea.7.4-8 Olelot - defective bunches of fruit 153
M.Pea.8.1 The poor collect leftovers first 157
M.Pea.8.2-4 The poor do not tithe the poor tithe or leftovers 157
M.Pea.8.5-7 How much poor tithe do you give someone? 158
M.Pea.8.8-9 Who is 'poor' enough for poor tithe? 162
Related Early Traditions from Other Tractates 162
Summary and Conclusions 166
Tractate Demay: Doubtfully Tithed Food
Definitions and Outline 169
M.Dem.1.1-2.1 What can be suspected of being doubtful? 171
M.Dem.2.2-4.2 Special circumstances re doubtfully tithed food 175
M.Dem.4.3-5.2 How to recognize and process doubtfully tithed food 182
M.Dem.5.3-11 Doubtfully tithed food from different sources 184
M.Dem.6.1-12 How farmers should tithe 186
M.Dem.7.1-6 When you cannot tithe doubtfully tithed food before eating 189
M.Dem.7.7-8 When tithes become doubtful 192
Summary and Conclusions 192
Tractate Kilayim: Mixtures
Definitions and Outline 195
M.Kil.1.1-6 Which plants form mixtures? 196
M.Kil.1.7-2.5 Farming with mixtures of plants 198
M.Kil.2.6-3.7 Separating mixtures of plants 200
M.Kil.4.1-5.8 Vineyards 200
M.Kil.6.1-7.8 Vine trellises 205
M.Kil.8.1-6 Mixtures of animals 209
M.Kil.9.1-10 Mixtures in garments 213
Related Early Traditions from Other Tractates 216
Summary And Conclusions 218
Tractate Shebiit: Sabbath Year
Definitions and Outline 221
M.Shebi.1.1-8 Tending orchards before the Sabbath Year 223
M.Shebi.2.1-10 Tending fields before the Sabbath Year 225
M.Shebi.3.1-4.6 Tending fields during the Sabbath Year 229
M.Shebi.4.7-5.9 Gathering Sabbath Year produce 235
M.Shebi.6.1-7.7 Produce which is liable to removal 241
M.Shebi.8.1-9.1 Commerce and use of Sabbath Year produce 243
M.Shebi.9.2-9 Removal of Sabbath Year produce 246
M.Shebi.10.1-9 Loans in the Sabbath Year 248
Related Early Traditions from Other Tractates 251
Summary and Conclusions 255
Tractate Terumot: Elevation Offerings
Definitions and Outline 259
M.Ter.1.1-3,6 Who may elevate? 260
M.Ter.1.4-5, 1.7-3.2 From what can you elevate? 265
M.Ter.3.3-4.6 How does one elevate? 273
M.Ter.4.7-5.9 Neutralizing elevation offerings 276
M.Ter.6.1-8.3 Wrongful consumption of elevation offerings 282
M.Ter.8.4-12 Spoiled food 289
M.Ter.9.1-11.5 Food produced from elevation offerings 293
M.Ter.11.6-10 Elevation offering containers and non-food Items 298
Related Early Traditions from Other Tractates 298
Summary and Conclusions 300
Tractate Maaserot: Tithes (First Tithe)
Definitions and Outline 305
M.Maas.1.1-7 The earliest and latest time to tithe 306
M.Maas.2.1-4 Eating untithed food before reaching home 309
M.Maas.2.5-6 Eating untithed food which you paid for 311
M.Maas.2.7-3.3 Eating untithed food given as payment 312
M.Maas.3.4-10 Eating Untithed Food Found in a Public Place 312
M.Maas.4.1-5a Produce which might not be fully processed 312
M.Maas.4.5b-5.8 Produce which might not be food 314
Summary and Conclusions 317
Tractate Maaser Sheni: Second Tithe
Definitions and Outline 321
M.Ms.1.1-7 Purchasing and selling second tithe produce 322
M.Ms.2.1-4 Using second tithe produce 327
M.Ms.2.5-10 Mixing consecrated and deconsecrated coins 327
M.Ms.3.1-3.4 Spending second tithe silver 331
M.Ms.3.5-8 Second tithe inside and outside Jerusalem 331
M.Ms.3.9-13 Second tithe produce which became impure 337
M.Ms.4.1-7 The cost of redeeming second tithe produce 339
M.Ms.4.8-12 Spending and storing second tithe silver 343
M.Ms.5.1-5 Fourth-year produce of vineyards 344
M.Ms.5.6-15 Removal of consecrated produce 349
Related Early Traditions from Other Tractates 357
Summary and Conclusions 359
Tractate Hallah: Dough Offering
Definitions and Outline 361
M.Hal.1.1-3 Species which are liable to dough offering 362
M.Hal.1.4-8 Dough which is exempt from the dough offering 363
M.Hal.1.9-2.2 The holiness of dough offering 365
M.Hal.2.3-8 How to separate the dough offering 366
M.Hal.3.1-6 When to separate a dough offering 368
M.Hal.3.7-4.6 Dough offerings from mixtures or different batches 370
M.Hal.4.7-11 Dough offerings from outside the Land 370
Related Early Traditions from Other Tractates 376
Summary and Conclusions 377
Tractate Orlah: Forefruit of Young Trees
Definitions and Outline 379
M.Orl.1.1-5 Which trees are subject to forefruit? 380
M.Orl.1.6-9 Forbidden produce of forefruit trees 380
M.Orl.2.1-3 Tainting by a measure of forefruit (and others) 381
M.Orl.2.4-17 Tainting by the effect of forefruit (and others) 383
M.Orl.3.1-9 Tainting by forefruit (and others), even outside the Land 387
Related Early Traditions From Other Tractates 390
Summary and Conclusions 392
Tractate Bikkurim: Firstfruits
Definitions and Outline 395
M.Bik.1.1-11 Who can bring firstfruits and who can recite? 396
M.Bik.2.1-5 Comparing firstfruits with tithes and elevation offerings 401
M.Bik.2.6-11 Other comparisons 401
M.Bik.3.1-7 Bringing firstfruits to the Temple 403
M.Bik.3.8-12 Offerings accompanying the firstfruits 412
M.Bik.4.1-5 Comparison of hermaphrodites with men and women 412
Summary and Conclusions 413
Glossary & Indexes
Grammatical Differences with Biblical Hebrew 417
Transliteration 418
Glossary of Technical Vocabulary 419
Index of Named Individuals and Places 431
Index of Subjects 435
Index of References to Ancient Literature 444
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