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From The CriticsReviewer: Julia Jo Hindmarsh, RN. BSN, MPH (Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing)
Description: Building on a lifetime of research and practice, transcultural nursing founder Madeleine Leininger and transcultural nursing leader Marilyn McFarland have deftly written and edited the most authoritative, comprehensive, and insightful book on giving culturally competent care. Updating Leininger's 1995 edition, this book applies the transcultural nursing theory to more cultural groups and includes an entire section on curriculum design and the teaching-learning process.
Purpose: "Leininger's stated purpose in writing this book is to present a rich compilation of research based on transcultural nursing knowledge which will inspire and equip readers to provide culturally competent care to people of diverse cultures. With the swiftly changing demographics of the United States and the increasing interdependence among cultural groups globally, this is not only a worthy objective for this book, but an imperative for nursing education in the 21st century. With such a distinguished list of contributors and comprehensiveness of topics covered, this book readily meets the objective. "
Audience: Nurse educators, administrators, clinical nurses, and nursing students will all benefit from this book. The author expands the intended audience to include consultants, health personnel, and scholars from other disciplines. As the founder of transcultural nursing, Dr. Leininger is the foremost authority on transcultural nursing knowledge and applying the transcultural nursing theory to research. Dr. McFarland, former editor of the Journal of Transcultural Nursing, is uniquely qualified to select sound examples of TCN research.
Features: Commencing with a scholarly review of the history of transcultural nursing and the theory of culture care, the first section elucidates the transcultural nursing care concepts and principles. Guidelines for transcultural nursing practice are articulated in the policy and standards statements. Special topics of interest across cultures including cultural food practices, health beliefs, and health practices and ethical, moral, and legal concerns are addressed in the second section. The effect of cultural perspectives and health practices on caring for people with health issues such as mental health and AIDS/HIV are also discussed. Application of the Sunrise model to various cultural groups is illustrated through research in the third section. The complexity of Leininger's Sunrise Model and its "holistic influencers" allows for a better understanding and appreciation for the unique elements and similarities among cultural groups. This knowledge is translated into decisions and actions in practice through the culture care modalities of preservation/maintenance, accommodation/negotiation and repatterning/restructuring. Because she is a master educator, Dr. Leininger's book would not be complete without a section on curriculum and teaching and learning principles for transcultural nursing. The focus is on the teacher and learner as coparticipants in discovering transcultural nursing phenomena.
Assessment: This is the definitive book on the substantial body of knowledge ad current research in this field. Educators and practitioners desiring to teach and provide culturally congruent and competent care for people of diverse cultures will find this text invaluable. Other books on this subject, many of which are written by Dr. Leininger's students, complement this book. I have chosen this book as the required text for my course, Cultural Dimensions in Health Care, at the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing.