Transient-Induced Latchup in CMOS Integrated Circuits / Edition 1

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The book all semiconductor device engineers must read to gain a practical feel for latchup-induced failure to produce lower-cost and higher-density chips.

Transient-Induced Latchup in CMOS Integrated Circuits  equips the practicing engineer with all the tools needed to address this regularly occurring problem while becoming more proficient at IC layout. Ker and Hsu introduce the phenomenon and basic physical mechanism of latchup, explaining the critical issues that have resurfaced for CMOS technologies. Once readers can gain an understanding of the standard practices for TLU, Ker and Hsu discuss the physical mechanism of TLU under a system-level ESD test, while introducing an efficient component-level TLU measurement setup. The authors then present experimental methodologies to extract safe and area-efficient compact layout rules for latchup prevention, including layout rules for I/O cells, internal circuits, and between I/O and internal circuits. The book concludes with an appendix giving a practical example of extracting layout rules and guidelines for latchup prevention in a 0.18-micrometer 1.8V/3.3V silicided CMOS process.

  • Presents real cases and solutions that occur in commercial CMOS IC chips
  • Equips engineers with the skills to conserve chip layout area and decrease time-to-market
  • Written by experts with real-world experience in circuit design and failure analysis
  • Distilled from numerous courses taught by the authors in IC design houses worldwide
  • The only book to introduce TLU under system-level ESD and EFT tests

This book is essential for practicing engineers involved in IC design, IC design management, system and application design, reliability, and failure analysis. Undergraduate and postgraduate students, specializing in CMOS circuit design and layout, will find this book to be a valuable introduction to real-world industry problems and a key reference during the course of their careers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470824078
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 8/24/2009
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 320
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.80 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Ming-Dou Ker is a Professor of Electronics Engineering at National Chiao-Tung University, where he also serves as the Director of the College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Master's Degree Program. He is also the Associate Executive Director of Taiwan's National Science and Technology Program on System-on-Chip, and in the past has worked as the Department Manager in the VLSI Design Division of the Computer and Communication Research Laboratories (CCL), Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI). Ker has published 300 technical papers in international journals and conferences related to reliability and quality design for circuits and systems in CMOS technology. He has also proposed many inventions to improve reliability and quality of integrated circuits, generating 125 U.S. patents and 135 Taiwan patents in Taiwan. As an active member of the global IEEE community, he has been Technical Program Committee and Session Chair of numerous international conferences and was selected as the Distinguished Lecturer in IEEE Circuits and Systems Society for year 2006-2007. In 2007 Ker was named IEEE Fellow for his contributions to electrostatic protection in integrated circuits, and performance optimization of VLSI micro-systems. He holds a Ph.D. from the Institute of Electronics, National Chiao-Tung University.

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Table of Contents


1 Introduction.

1.1 Latchup Overview.

1.2 Background of TLU.

1.3 Categories of TLU-Triggering Modes.

1.4 TLU Standard Practice.


2 Physical Mechanism of TLU under the System-Level ESDTest.

2.1 Background.

2.2 TLU in the System-Level ESD Test.

2.3 Test Structure.

2.4 Measurement Setup.

2.5 Device Simulation.

2.6 TLU Measurement.

2.7 Discussion.

2.8 Conclusion.


3 Component-Level Measurement for TLU under System-Level ESDConsiderations.

3.1 Background.

3.2 Component-Level TLU Measurement Setup.

3.3 Influence of the Current-Blocking Diode and Current-LimitingResistance on the Bipolar Trigger Waveforms.

3.4 Influence of the Current-Blocking Diode and Current-LimitingResistance on the TLU Level.

3.5 Verifications of Device Simulation.

3.6 Suggested Component-Level TLU Measurement Setup.

3.7 TLU Verification on Real Circuits.

3.8 Evaluation on Board-Level Noise Filters to Suppress TLU.

3.9 Conclusion.


4 TLU Dependency on Power-Pin Damping Frequency and DampingFactor in CMOS Integrated Circuits.

4.1 Examples of Different DFreq and DFactor in the System-LevelESD Test.

4.2 TLU Dependency on DFreq and DFactor.

4.3 Experimental Verification on TLU.

4.4 Suggested Guidelines for TLU Prevention.

4.5 Conclusion.


5 TLU in CMOS ICs in the Electrical Fast TransientTest.

5.1 Electrical Fast Transient Test.

5.2 Test Structure.

5.3 Experimental Measurements.

5.4 Evaluation on Board-Level Noise Filters to Suppress TLU inthe EFT Test.

5.5. Conclusion.


6 Methodology on Extracting Compact Layout Rules for LatchupPrevention.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Latchup Test.

6.3 Extraction of Layout Rules for I/O Cells.

6.4 Extraction of Layout Rules for Internal Circuits.

6.5 Extraction of Layout Rules between I/O Cells and InternalCircuits.

6.6 Conclusion.


7 Special Layout Issues for Latchup Prevention.

7.1 Latchup Between Two Different Power Domains.

7.2 Latchup in Internal Circuits Adjacent to Power-Rail ESDClamp Circuits.

7.3 Unexpected Trigger Point to Initiate Latchup in InternalCircuits.

7.4 Other Unexpected Latchup Paths in CMOS ICs.

7.5 Conclusion.


8 TLU Prevention in Power-Rail ESD Clamp Circuits.

8.1 In LV CMOS ICs.

8.2 In HV CMOS ICs.

8.3 Conclusion.


9 Summary.

9.1 TLU in CMOS ICs.

9.2 Extraction of Compact and Safe Layout Rules for LatchupPrevention.

Appendix A: Practical Application-Extractions of LatchupDesign Rules in a 0.18-mm 1.8 V/3.3V Silicided CMOSProcess.

A.1 For I/O Cells.

A.2 For Internal Circuits.

A.3 For Between I/O and Internal Circuits.

A.4 For Circuits across Two Different Power Domains.

A.5 Suggested Layout Guidelines.


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