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The unraveling of communist regimes in Europe since 1989 raised hopes for a brighter future of freedom and peace in those countries and around the world. This work combines in-depth analysis of individual countries with essays offering the perspectives of participants in the transitions. It conceptualizes and provides an overview of four different patterns of political development which have followed the end of communist rule. The studies provide new insights into the ongoing struggles among three competing political currents: those seeking democracy and market-oriented economies; former elements of the communist power structure including some in the communist party, the upper echelons of government and economic managers, the secret police, and the military who seek to retain or expand their power; and ultranationalist or ethnic extremists advocating the dominance of their particular group. Countries covered are Russia, Poland, Hungary, Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Albania. Contributors: Jozsef Antall, Vadim Bakatin, Thomas G. Baker, Eniko Bollobas, Peter A. Clark, Emil Constantinescu, Miles Costich, Petre Datculescu, Carl Gershman, Frone Golem, Alexander Henderson, Robert Hutchings, Oleg Kalugin, Phyllis Kaminsky, Rita Klimova, Andrei Kolosovskiy, Maciej Kozlowski, Eugenio Lari, Constantine C. Menges, Mihajlo Mihajlov, Thomas Niles, Ernest Petric, John Robson, James M. Sheehan, Viktor Sheinis, John Sullivan, Pal Tar, Gyorgy Tokay, Dorin Tudoran, Vernon A. Walters, Sharon Wolchik, and Irena Zikova. Co-published with the Program on Transitions to Democracy.