Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering / Edition 4

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Overview

Most books on transmission and distribution electrical engineering are student texts that focus on theory, brief overviews, or specialised monographs. Colin Bayliss and Brian Hardy have produced a unique and comprehensive handbook aimed squarely at practising engineers and planners involved in all aspects of getting electricity from the power plant to the user via the power grid. The scope of this book embraces power systems, substations, cabling, switchgear, power systems protection, overhead lines, project management, planning, regulations, and more...

The third edition has been fully updated throughout in line with current IEC and European standards, an approach which has resulted in a thoroughly rewritten chapter on earthing and bonding and significant revisions to the chapters on EMC, insulation coordination and overhead line design. There is increased emphasis on reliability concepts and greatly expanded treatment of the subject of power quality. The resulting book is an essential guide and a hard-working reference for all engineers, technicians, managers and planners involved in the electricity supply industry, and related areas such as generation, and industrial electricity usage.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
‘Surely the most comprehensive tome ever published on the subject. Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering should be weighing down the bookshelves of all engineers, manufacturers and contractors involved with transmission and distribution networks.’, Electrical Review

‘Colin Bayliss should be applauded for producing... a book that presents a comprehensive range of subjects that would give the young engineer a good base knowledge of transmission and distribution electrical engineering and to help him or her to be a useful member of a project team.’, Power Engineering Journal

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780080969121
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 2/14/2012
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 1180
  • Sales rank: 1,317,675
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 2.60 (d)

Read an Excerpt

Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering


By C. R. Bayliss B. J. Hardy

Newnes

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-08-096913-8


Chapter One

System Studies

1.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter describes three main areas of transmission and distribution network analysis, namely load flow, system stability and short circuit analysis. Such system studies necessitate a thorough understanding of network parameters and generating plant characteristics for the correct input of system data and interpretation of results. A background to generator characteristics is therefore included in Section 1.3.

It is now recognized that harmonic analysis is also a major system study tool. This is discussed separately in Chapter 24. Reliability studies are considered in Chapter 23.

The analysis work, for all but the simplest schemes, is carried out using tried and proven computer programs. The application of these computer methods and the specific principles involved are described by the examination of some small distribution schemes in sufficient detail to be applicable to a wide range of commercially available computer softwares. The more general theoretical principles involved in load flow and fault analysis data collection are explained in Chapter 28.

1.2 LOAD FLOW

1.2.1 Purpose

A load flow analysis allows identification of real and reactive power flows, voltage profiles, power factor and any overloads in the network. Once the network parameters have been entered into the computer database the analysis allows the engineer to investigate the performance of the network under a variety of outage conditions. The effect of system losses and power factor correction, the need for any system reinforcement and confirmation of economic transmission can then follow.

1.2.2 Sample Study

1.2.2.1 Network Single-Line Diagram

Figure 1.1 shows a simple five busbar 6 kV generation and 33 kV distribution network for study. Table 1.1 details the busbar and branch system input data associated with the network. Input parameters for cables and overhead lines are given here in a per unit (pu) format on a 100 MVA base. Different programs may require input data in different formats, for example per cent impedance, ohmic notation, etc. Please refer to Chapter 28, for the derivation of system impedance data in different formats from manufacturers' literature. The network here is kept small in order to allow the first-time user to become rapidly familiar with the procedures for load flows. Larger networks involve a repetition of these procedures.

1.2.2.2 Busbar Input Database

The busbars are first set up in the program by name and number and in some cases by zone. Bus parameters are then entered according to type. A 'slack bus' is a busbar where the generation values, P (real power in MW) and Q (reactive power in MVAr), are unknown; there will always be one such busbar in any system. Busbar AO in the example is entered as a slack bus with a base voltage of 6.0 kV, a generator terminal voltage of 6.3 kV (1.05 pu) and a phase angle of 0.0° (a default value). All load values on busbar AO are taken as zero (again a default value) due to unknown load distribution and system losses.

A 'P, Q generator bus' is one where P and Q are specified to have definite values. If, for example, P is made equal to zero we have defined the constant Q mode of operation for a synchronous generator. Parameters for busbar BO in the example may be specified with base voltage 6.0 kV, desired voltage 6.3 kV, and default values for phase angle (0.0°), load power (0.0 MW), load reactive power (0.0 MVAr), shunt reactance (0.0 MVAr) and shunt capacitance (0.0 pu). Alternatively, most programs accept generator busbar data by specifying real generator power and voltage. The program may ask for reactive power limits to be specified instead of voltage since in a largely reactive power network you cannot 'fix' both voltage and reactive power – something has to 'give way' under heavy load conditions. Therefore, busbar BO may be specified with generator power 9.0 MW, maximum and minimum reactive power as 4.3 MVAr and transient or subtransient reactance in per unit values.

These reactance values are not used in the actual load flow but are entered in anticipation of the need for subsequent fault studies. For the calculation of oil circuit breaker breaking currents or for electromechanical protection relay operating currents, it is more usual to take the generator transient reactance values. This is because the subtransient reactance effects will generally disappear within the first few cycles and before the circuit breaker or protection has operated. Theoretically, when calculating maximum circuit breaker making currents subtransient generator reactance values should be used. Likewise for modern, fast (say 2 cycle) circuit breakers, generator breakers and with solid state fast-relay protection where accuracy may be important, it is worth checking the effect of entering subtransient reactances into the database. In reality, the difference between transient and subtransient reactance values will be small compared to other system parameters (transformers, cables, etc.) for all but faults close up to the generator terminals.

A 'load bus' has floating values for its voltage and phase angle. Busbar A in the example has a base voltage of 33 kV entered and an unknown actual value which will depend upon the load flow conditions.

1.2.2.3 Branch Input Database

Branch data is next added for the network plant (transformers, cables, overhead lines, etc.) between the already specified busbars. Therefore, from busbar A to busbar B the 30 km, 33 kV overhead line data is entered with resistance 0.8 pu, reactance 1.73 pu and susceptance 0.0 pu (unknown in this example and 0.0 entered as a default value).

Similarly for a transformer branch such as from busbar AO to A, data is entered as resistance 0.0 pu, reactance 0.5 pu (10% on 20 MVA base rating = 50% on 100 MVA base or 0.5 pu), susceptance 0.0 pu (unknown but very small compared to inductive reactance), load limit 20 MVA, from bus AO voltage 6 kV to bus A voltage 33.66 kV (1.02 pu taking into account transformer ±5% taps). Tap ranges and short-term overloads can be entered in more detail depending upon the exact program being used.

1.2.2.4 Saving Data

When working at the computer it is always best to regularly save your files both during database compilation and at the end of the procedure when you are satisfied that all the data have been entered correctly. Save data onto the hard disk and make backups for safe keeping to suitable alternative media (e.g. CD, USB flash drive). Figure 1.2 gives a typical computer printout for the bus and branch data files associated with this example.

1.2.2.5 Solutions

Different programs use a variety of different mathematical methods to solve the load flow equations associated with the network. Some programs ask the user to specify what method they wish to use from a menu of choices (Newton–Raphson, Gauss–Seidel, Fast decoupled with adjustments, etc.). A full understanding of these numerical methods is beyond the scope of this book. It is worth noting, however, that these methods start with an initial approximation and then follow a series of iterations or steps in order to eliminate the unknowns and 'home in' on the solutions. The procedure may converge satisfactorily in which case the computer continues to iterate until the difference between successive iterations is sufficiently small. Alternatively, the procedure may not converge or may only converge extremely slowly. In these cases it is necessary to re-examine the input data or alter the iteration in some way or, if desired, stop the iteration altogether.

The accuracy of the solution and the ability to control round-off errors will depend, in part, upon the way in which the numbers are handled in the computer. In the past it was necessary to ensure that the computer used was capable of handling accurate floating-point arithmetic, where the numbers are represented with a fixed number of significant figures. Today these can be accepted as standard. It is a most important principle in numerical work that all sources of error (round off, mistakes, nature of formulae used, approximate physical input data) must be constantly borne in mind if the 'junk in equals junk out' syndrome is to be avoided. A concern that remains valid in selecting computing equipment is the need to ensure that the available memory is adequate for the size of network model under consideration.

Some customers ask their engineering consultants or contractors to prove their software by a Quality Assurance Audit which assesses the performance of one software package with another for a single trial network.

Figure 1.3 gives typical busbar and branch reports resulting from a load flow computation. It is normal to present such results by superimposing them in the correct positions on the single-line diagram as shown in Fig. 1.4. Such a pictorial representation may be achieved directly with the more sophisticated system analysis programs. Alternatively, the network single-line diagram may be prepared using a computer graphics program (Autocad, Autosketch, GDS, etc.) and the load flow results transferred using data exchange files into data blocks on the diagram.

1.2.2.6 Further Studies

The network already analysed may be modified as required, changing loads, generation, adding lines or branches (reinforcement) or removing lines (simulating outages).

Consider, for example, removing or switching off the overhead line branches running either from busbars A to C or from B to C. Non-convergence of the load flow numerical analysis occurs because of a collapse of voltage at busbar C.

If, however, some reactive compensation is added at busbar C – for example a 33 kV, 6 MVAr (0.06 pu) capacitor bank – not only is the normal load flow improved, but the outage of line BC can be sustained. An example of a computer generated single-line diagram describing this situation is given in Fig. 1.5. This is an example of the beauty of computer aided system analysis. Once the network is set up in the database the engineer can investigate the performance of the network under a variety of conditions. Refer to Chapter 28 'Fundamentals', Section 28.8.5 regarding Reactive Compensation principles.

1.3 SYSTEM STABILITY

1.3.1 Introduction

The problem of stability in a network concerns energy balance and the ability to generate sufficient restoring forces to counter system disturbances. Minor disturbances to the system result in a mutual interchange of power between the machines in the system acting to keep them in step with each other and to maintain a single universal frequency. A state of equilibrium is retained between the total mechanical power/energy-input and the electrical power/energy-output by natural adjustment of system voltage levels and the common system frequency. There are three regimes of stability:

(a) Steady state stability describes the ability of the system to remain in synchronism during minor disturbances or slowly developing system changes such as a gradual increase in load as the 24-hour maximum demand is approached.

(b) Transient stability is concerned with system behaviour following an abrupt change in loading conditions as could occur as a result of a fault, the sudden loss of generation or an interconnecting line, or the sudden connection of additional load. The duration of the transient period is in the order of a second. System behaviour in this interval is crucial in the design of power systems.

(c) Dynamic stability is a term used to describe the behaviour of the system in the interval between transient behaviour and the steady state region. For example dynamic stability studies could include the behaviour of turbine governors, steam/fuel flows, load shedding and the recovery of motor loads, etc.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering by C. R. Bayliss B. J. Hardy Copyright © 2012 by Elsevier Ltd. . Excerpted by permission of Newnes. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents


About the authors     xxi
Contributors     xxiii
Preface     xxvii
System Studies     1
Introduction     1
Load flow     1
Purpose     1
Sample study     2
System stability     8
Introduction     8
Analytical aspects     10
Steady state stability     14
Transient stability     17
Dynamic stability     28
Effect of induction motors     29
Data requirements and interpretation of transient stability studies     30
Case studies     35
Short circuit analysis
Purpose     42
Sample study     42
Drawings and Diagrams     50
Introduction     50
Block diagrams     50
Schematic diagrams     51
Method of representation     51
Main circuits     55
Control, signalling and monitoring circuits     55
Manufacturers' drawings     55
Combined wiring/cabling diagrams     55
British practice     61
European practice     64
Other systems     67
Computeraided design (CAD)     68
Case study     69
Graphical symbols     69
Relay identification - numerical codes     71
Comparison between German, British, US/Canadian and international symbols     82
General circuit elements     83
Operating mechanisms     86
Switchgear     89
Substation Layouts     92
Introduction     92
Substation design considerations     92
Security of supply     92
Extendibility     93
Maintainability     93
Operational flexibility     94
Protection arrangements     94
Short circuit limitations     94
Land area     94
Cost     95
Alternative layouts     95
Single busbar     95
Transformer feeder     97
Mesh     101
Ring     103
Double busbar     104
1 1/2 Circuit breaker     105
Space requirements     107
Introduction     107
Safety clearances     108
Phase-phase and phase-earth clearances     109
Substation Auxiliary Power Supplies      115
Introduction     115
DC supplies     115
Battery and charger configurations     115
Battery charger components     118
Installation requirements     121
Typical enquiry data - DC switchboard     125
Batteries     126
Introduction     126
Battery capacity     126
Characteristics of batteries     127
Battery sizing calculations     130
Typical enquiry data     133
AC supplies     135
Power sources     135
LVAC switchboard fault level     137
Auxiliary transformer LV connections     137
Allowance for future extension     139
Typical enquiry data     139
Earthing transformer selection     140
Uninterruptible power supplies     144
Current and Voltage Transformers     149
Introduction     149
Current transformers     149
Introduction     149
Protection CT classifications     149
Metering CTs     153
Design and construction considerations     154
Terminal markings     156
Specifications      157
Voltage transformers     157
Introduction     157
Electromagnetic VTs     157
Capacitor VTs     158
Specifications     159
Future trends     159
Insulators     163
Introduction     163
Insulator materials     163
Polymeric and resin materials     163
Glass and porcelain     164
Insulator types     164
Post insulators     164
Cap and pin insulators     168
Long rod     168
Pollution control     169
Environment/creepage distances     169
Remedial measures     172
Calculation of specific creepage path     173
Insulator specification     174
Standards     174
Design characteristics     174
Tests     180
Sample and routine tests     180
Technical particulars     180
Substation Building Services     181
Introduction     181
Lighting     181
Terminology     181
Internal lighting     186
External lighting     187
Control      197
Distribution characterization     199
Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning     200
Air circulation     200
Air-conditioning     202
Heating     207
Fire detection and suppression     207
Introduction     207
Fire extinguishers     208
Access, first aid and safety     208
Fire detection     209
Fire suppression     212
Cables, control panels and power supplies     213
Earthing and Bonding     215
Introduction     215
Design criteria     215
Touch and step voltages     215
Touch and step voltage limits     216
Substation earthing calculations     219
Environmental conditions     219
Earthing materials     222
Earth resistance and earth potential rise     225
Hazard voltage tolerable limits     227
Computer simulation     229
References     232
Insulation Co-ordination     233
Introduction     233
System voltages     233
Power frequency voltage     233
Overvoltages      234
Clearances     245
Air     245
SF[subscript 6]     248
Procedures for co-ordination     248
The IEC standard approach     248
Statistical approach     249
Non-statistical approach     251
Surge protection     251
Rod or spark gaps     251
Surge arresters     253
References     268
Relay Protection     269
Introduction     269
System configurations     270
Faults     270
Unearthed systems     270
Impedance earthed systems     270
Solidly earthed systems     271
Network arrangements     271
Power system protection principles     274
Discrimination by time     274
Discrimination by current magnitude     275
Discrimination by time and fault direction     275
Unit protection     275
Signalling channel assistance     276
Current relays     277
Introduction     277
Inverse definite minimum time lag (IDMTL) relays     277
Alternative characteristic curves     280
Plotting relay curves on log/log graph paper     280
Current relay application examples     281
Differential protection schemes     292
Biased differential protection     292
High impedance protection     295
Transformer protection application examples     296
Pilot wire unit protection     300
Busbar protection     303
Distance relays     306
Introduction     306
Basic principles     307
Relay characteristics     307
Zones of protection     313
Switched relays     314
Typical overhead transmission line protection schemes     315
Auxiliary relays     319
Tripping and auxiliary     319
AC auxiliary relays     323
Timers     323
Undervoltage     325
Underfrequency     325
Computer assisted grading exercise     326
Basic input data     326
Network fault levels     328
CT ratios and protection devices     328
Relay settings     328
Practical distribution network case study     329
Introduction     329
Main substation protection     330
Traction system protection     331
21 kV distribution system and protection philosophy     332
21 kV pilot wire unit protection     334
21 kV system back-up protection     335
Use of earth fault indicators     337
Summary     337
Recent advances in control, protection and monitoring     337
Background     337
Developments     338
References     340
Fuses and Miniature Circuit Breakers     341
Introduction     341
Fuses     341
Types and standards     341
Definitions and terminology     345
HRC fuses     345
High voltage fuses     348
Cartridge fuse construction     355
Fuse operation     357
High speed operation     357
Discrimination     357
Cable protection     360
Motor protection     362
Semiconductor protection     363
Miniature circuit breakers     363
Operation     363
Standards     367
Application     368
References     373
Cables     374
Introduction      374
Codes and standards     374
Types of cables and materials     377
General design criteria     377
Cable construction     378
Submarine cables     386
Joints and terminations     388
Cable sizing     389
Introduction     389
Cables laid in air     390
Cables laid direct in ground     390
Cables laid in ducts     395
Earthing and bonding     396
Short circuit ratings     398
Calculation examples     400
Calculation of losses in cables     410
Dielectric losses     410
Screen or sheath losses     411
Fire properties of cables     411
Introduction     411
Toxic and corrosive gases     411
Smoke emission     412
Oxygen index and temperature index     413
Flame retardance/flammability     413
Fire resistance     414
Mechanical properties     415
Control and communication cables     415
Low voltage and multicore control cables     415
Telephone cables     416
Fibre optic cables     417
Cable management systems     423
Standard cable laying arrangements     423
Computer aided cable installation systems     426
Interface definition     429
References     435
Switchgear     436
Introduction     436
Terminology and standards     436
Switching     438
Basic principles     438
Special switching cases     450
Switches and disconnectors     453
Contactors     456
Arc quenching media     460
Introduction     460
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF[subscript 6])     463
Vacuum     464
Oil     468
Air     470
Operating mechanisms     472
Closing and opening     472
Interlocking     477
Integral earthing     477
Equipment specifications     480
12 kV metal-clad indoor switchboard example     480
Open terminal 145 kV switchgear examples     486
Distribution system switchgear example     491
Distribution ring main unit     492
References     498
Power Transformers      499
Introduction     499
Standards and principles     499
Basic transformer action     499
Transformer equivalent circuit     501
Voltage and current distribution     503
Transformer impedance representation     504
Tap changers     506
Useful standards     515
Voltage, impedance and power rating     517
General     517
Voltage drop     517
Impedance     518
Voltage ratio and tappings - general     519
Voltage ratio with off-circuit tappings     519
Voltage ratio and on-load tappings     520
Basic insulation levels (BIL)     520
Vector groups and neutral earthing     520
Calculation example to determine impedance and tap range     523
Thermal design     532
General     532
Temperature rise     532
Loss of life expectancy with temperature     533
Ambient temperature     534
Solar heating     535
Transformer cooling classifications     535
Selection of cooling classification     538
Change of cooling classification in the field     539
Capitalization of losses     540
Constructional aspects     541
Cores     541
Windings     542
Tanks and enclosures     544
Cooling plant     546
Low fire risk types     547
Neutral earthing transformers     549
Reactors     549
Accessories     552
General     552
Buchholz relay     552
Sudden pressure relay and gas analyser relay     553
Pressure relief devices     553
Temperature monitoring     553
Breathers     554
Miscellaneous     554
Transformer ordering details     556
References     564
Substation and Overhead Line Foundations     565
Introduction     565
Soil investigations     565
Foundation types     566
Foundation design     575
Site works     576
Setting out     575
Excavation     577
Piling     577
Earthworks     579
Concrete     530
Steelwork fixings     583
Overhead Line Routing     585
Introduction      585
Routing objectives     585
Preliminary routing     587
Survey equipment requirements     587
Aerial survey     587
Ground survey     587
Ground soil conditions     587
Wayleave, access and terrain     588
Optimization     589
Detailed line survey and profile     591
Accuracy requirements     591
Profile requirements     592
Computer aided techniques     593
Structures, Towers and Poles     595
Introduction     595
Environmental conditions     597
Typical parameters     597
Effect on tower or support design     597
Conductor loads     603
Structure design     611
Lattice steel tower design considerations     611
Tower testing     623
Pole and tower types     624
Pole structures     624
Tower structures     625
References     629
Overhead Line Conductor and Technical Specifications     630
Introduction     630
Environmental conditions     630
Conductor selection     631
General      631
Types of conductor     632
Aerial bundled conductor and BLX     633
Conductor breaking strengths     637
Bi-metal connectors     639
Corrosion     639
Calculated electrical ratings     641
Heat balance equation     641
Power carrying capacity     642
Corona discharge     645
Overhead line calculation example     649
Design spans, clearances and loadings     651
Design spans     651
Conductor and earth wire spacing and clearances     664
Broken wire conditions     674
Conductor tests/inspections     674
Overhead line fittings     675
Fittings related to aerodynamic phenomena     675
Suspension clamps     677
Sag adjusters     678
Miscellaneous fittings     678
Overhead line impedance     678
Inductive reactance     678
Capacitive reactance     680
Resistance     680
Substation busbar selection - case study     681
Introduction     681
Conductor diameter/current carrying capacity     681
Conductor selection on weight basis      681
Conductor short circuit current capability     684
Conductor support arrangements     687
References     692
Testing and Commissioning     693
Introduction     693
Quality assurance     694
Introduction     694
Inspection release notice     696
Partial acceptance testing     696
System acceptance testing     696
Documentation and record systems     696
Works inspections and testing     698
Objectives     698
Specifications and responsibilities     699
Type tests     699
Routine production tests     700
Site inspection and testing     700
Pre-commissioning and testing     700
Maintenance inspection     701
On-line inspection and testing     701
Testing and commissioning methods     705
Switchgear     705
Transformers     713
Cables     718
Protection     724
Commissioning test procedure requirements     738
Drawings, diagrams and manuals     739
Electromagnetic Compatibility     741
Introduction      741
Standards     742
Compliance     743
Testing     744
Introduction     744
Magnetic field radiated emission measurements     744
Electric field radiated emission measurements     746
Conducted emission measurements     748
Immunity testing     749
Screening     750
Introduction     750
The use of screen wire     750
The use of screen boxes and Faraday enclosures     750
The use of screen floors in rooms     752
Typical useful formulae     755
Decibel reference levels     755
Field strength calculations     755
Mutual inductance between two long parallel pairs of wires     756
Attenuation factors     756
Case studies     757
Screening power cables     757
Measurement of field strengths     761
References     763
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition     764
Introduction     764
Programmable logic controllers     764
Functions     764
PLC selection     765
Application example     770
Power line carrier communication links     776
Introduction     776
Power line carrier communication principles     777
Supervisory control and data acquisition     780
Introduction     780
Typical characteristics     783
Design issues     785
Example (Channel Tunnel)     786
Software management     788
Software - a special case     789
Software life cycle     790
Software implementation practice     793
Software project management     796
References     798
Project Management     799
Introduction     799
Project evaluation     799
Introduction     799
Financial assessment     800
Economic assessment     807
Financing     811
Responsibilities for funding     811
Cash flow     811
Sources of finance     812
Export credit agencies     812
Funding risk reduction     813
Use of private finance     814
Project phases     816
The project life cycle     816
Cash flow     817
Bonds      819
Advance payments and retentions     820
Insurances     822
Project closeout     822
Terms and conditions of contract     822
Time, cost and quality     822
Basic types of contract     823
Standard terms and conditions of contract     825
Key clauses     829
Tendering     832
Choosing the contractor     832
Estimating     832
Tender evaluation     834
Model forms of contract - exercise     835
Project definition/questionnaire     837
Bidding checklist     863
Distribution Planning     867
Introduction     867
Definitions     867
Demand or average demand     868
Maximum demand (MD)     869
Demand factor     870
Utilization factor (UF)     870
Load factor (LDF)     870
Diversity factor (DF)     871
Coincident factor (CF)     872
Load diversity     873
Loss factor (LSF)     873
Load duration     878
Loss equivalent hours     878
Peak responsibility factor (PRF)      880
Load forecasting     881
Users of load forecasts     881
The preparation of load forecasts     882
The micro load forecast     882
The macro load forecast     885
Nature of the load forecast     886
System parameters     888
Distribution feeder arrangements     888
Voltage drop calculations     889
Positive sequence resistance     891
Inductive reactance     892
Economic loading of distribution feeders and transformers     893
System losses     894
System reliability     896
Introduction     896
Reliability functions     897
Predictability analysis     901
Drawings and materials take off     906
Power Quality - Harmonics in Power Systems     907
Introduction     907
The nature of harmonics     909
Introduction     909
Three phase harmonics     909
The generation of harmonics     910
General     910
Transformers     910
Converters     911
The thyristor bridge     911
Railway and tramway traction systems      913
Static VAr compensators and balancers     915
The effects of harmonics     917
Heating effects of harmonics     917
Harmonic overvoltages     917
Resonances     917
Interference     919
The limitation of harmonics     920
Harmonic filters     920
Capacitor detuning     924
Ferroresonance and subharmonics     924
Introduction     924
A physical description of ferroresonance     925
Subharmonics     928
Interharmonics     928
Harmonic studies     929
The requirement     929
The studies     930
Measurement     931
Case studies     931
References     931
Power Quality - Voltage Fluctuations     933
Introduction     933
The nature and cause of voltage disturbances in power systems     933
Short-term interruptions and voltage dips and peaks     933
Voltage fluctuations     937
Voltage flicker     937
Slow-voltage fluctuations     938
Voltage unbalance     938
Step-change events      939
Solutions     939
Energy storage     939
Balancing     940
Static var compensators     940
The STATCOM     942
Case study     942
References     944
Fundamentals     945
Introduction     945
Symbols and nomenclature     945
Symbols     945
Units and conversion tables     946
Alternating quantities     951
Vector representation     954
Vector algebra     959
The j operator     959
Exponential vector format     960
Polar co-ordinate vector format     961
Algebraic operations on vectors     961
The h operator     962
Sequence components     962
Theoretical background     962
Calculation methodology and approximations     964
Interpretation     965
Network fault analysis     966
Introduction     966
Fundamental formulae     966
Simplified network reduction example     971
Design optimization     977
Introduction     977
Technical problems      978
Loss reduction     982
Communication link gain or attenuation     990
Reactive compensation     991
Power factor correction calculation procedures     994
References     998
Index     1001
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