Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering [NOOK Book]

Overview

Aimed squarely at practicing engineers, this comprehensive and authoritative reference covers all aspects of getting electricity from the source to user via the power grid. Contained within one volume, readers will find all the fundamental knowledge requirements of their profession clearly and succinctly explained with reference to real-life systems and challenges. Written by engineers for engineers, theory is tied to current best-practice conforming to IEC regulations and standards. With standards and equipment ...

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Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering

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Overview

Aimed squarely at practicing engineers, this comprehensive and authoritative reference covers all aspects of getting electricity from the source to user via the power grid. Contained within one volume, readers will find all the fundamental knowledge requirements of their profession clearly and succinctly explained with reference to real-life systems and challenges. Written by engineers for engineers, theory is tied to current best-practice conforming to IEC regulations and standards. With standards and equipment updates throughout, there are new chapters on hot topics including DC Transmission and the latest engineering for Smart Networks - addressing the challenges of introducing energy from renewable sources into the grid. Particularly useful for power engineers starting out on their career, this new edition ensures Bayliss remains an essential ‘tool of the trade’ for all engineers, technicians, managers and planners involved in electricity supply and industrial electricity usage.



  • Electric power transmission and distribution is a huge sector. As engineers work to upgrade networks to handle smart and renewable sources of power they need the real world guidance of this book
  • This is the market leading classic, a true comprehensive on-the-job reference
  • Addresses renewable and distributed energy developments, international regulatory compliance issues with coverage of IEC standards, and new key conversions to US based standards and terminologies
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
‘Surely the most comprehensive tome ever published on the subject. Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering should be weighing down the bookshelves of all engineers, manufacturers and contractors involved with transmission and distribution networks.’, Electrical Review

‘Colin Bayliss should be applauded for producing... a book that presents a comprehensive range of subjects that would give the young engineer a good base knowledge of transmission and distribution electrical engineering and to help him or her to be a useful member of a project team.’, Power Engineering Journal

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780080969138
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 11/29/2011
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 1180
  • File size: 22 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Read an Excerpt

Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering


By C. R. Bayliss B. J. Hardy

Newnes

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-08-096913-8


Chapter One

System Studies

1.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter describes three main areas of transmission and distribution network analysis, namely load flow, system stability and short circuit analysis. Such system studies necessitate a thorough understanding of network parameters and generating plant characteristics for the correct input of system data and interpretation of results. A background to generator characteristics is therefore included in Section 1.3.

It is now recognized that harmonic analysis is also a major system study tool. This is discussed separately in Chapter 24. Reliability studies are considered in Chapter 23.

The analysis work, for all but the simplest schemes, is carried out using tried and proven computer programs. The application of these computer methods and the specific principles involved are described by the examination of some small distribution schemes in sufficient detail to be applicable to a wide range of commercially available computer softwares. The more general theoretical principles involved in load flow and fault analysis data collection are explained in Chapter 28.

1.2 LOAD FLOW

1.2.1 Purpose

A load flow analysis allows identification of real and reactive power flows, voltage profiles, power factor and any overloads in the network. Once the network parameters have been entered into the computer database the analysis allows the engineer to investigate the performance of the network under a variety of outage conditions. The effect of system losses and power factor correction, the need for any system reinforcement and confirmation of economic transmission can then follow.

1.2.2 Sample Study

1.2.2.1 Network Single-Line Diagram

Figure 1.1 shows a simple five busbar 6 kV generation and 33 kV distribution network for study. Table 1.1 details the busbar and branch system input data associated with the network. Input parameters for cables and overhead lines are given here in a per unit (pu) format on a 100 MVA base. Different programs may require input data in different formats, for example per cent impedance, ohmic notation, etc. Please refer to Chapter 28, for the derivation of system impedance data in different formats from manufacturers' literature. The network here is kept small in order to allow the first-time user to become rapidly familiar with the procedures for load flows. Larger networks involve a repetition of these procedures.

1.2.2.2 Busbar Input Database

The busbars are first set up in the program by name and number and in some cases by zone. Bus parameters are then entered according to type. A 'slack bus' is a busbar where the generation values, P (real power in MW) and Q (reactive power in MVAr), are unknown; there will always be one such busbar in any system. Busbar AO in the example is entered as a slack bus with a base voltage of 6.0 kV, a generator terminal voltage of 6.3 kV (1.05 pu) and a phase angle of 0.0° (a default value). All load values on busbar AO are taken as zero (again a default value) due to unknown load distribution and system losses.

A 'P, Q generator bus' is one where P and Q are specified to have definite values. If, for example, P is made equal to zero we have defined the constant Q mode of operation for a synchronous generator. Parameters for busbar BO in the example may be specified with base voltage 6.0 kV, desired voltage 6.3 kV, and default values for phase angle (0.0°), load power (0.0 MW), load reactive power (0.0 MVAr), shunt reactance (0.0 MVAr) and shunt capacitance (0.0 pu). Alternatively, most programs accept generator busbar data by specifying real generator power and voltage. The program may ask for reactive power limits to be specified instead of voltage since in a largely reactive power network you cannot 'fix' both voltage and reactive power – something has to 'give way' under heavy load conditions. Therefore, busbar BO may be specified with generator power 9.0 MW, maximum and minimum reactive power as 4.3 MVAr and transient or subtransient reactance in per unit values.

These reactance values are not used in the actual load flow but are entered in anticipation of the need for subsequent fault studies. For the calculation of oil circuit breaker breaking currents or for electromechanical protection relay operating currents, it is more usual to take the generator transient reactance values. This is because the subtransient reactance effects will generally disappear within the first few cycles and before the circuit breaker or protection has operated. Theoretically, when calculating maximum circuit breaker making currents subtransient generator reactance values should be used. Likewise for modern, fast (say 2 cycle) circuit breakers, generator breakers and with solid state fast-relay protection where accuracy may be important, it is worth checking the effect of entering subtransient reactances into the database. In reality, the difference between transient and subtransient reactance values will be small compared to other system parameters (transformers, cables, etc.) for all but faults close up to the generator terminals.

A 'load bus' has floating values for its voltage and phase angle. Busbar A in the example has a base voltage of 33 kV entered and an unknown actual value which will depend upon the load flow conditions.

1.2.2.3 Branch Input Database

Branch data is next added for the network plant (transformers, cables, overhead lines, etc.) between the already specified busbars. Therefore, from busbar A to busbar B the 30 km, 33 kV overhead line data is entered with resistance 0.8 pu, reactance 1.73 pu and susceptance 0.0 pu (unknown in this example and 0.0 entered as a default value).

Similarly for a transformer branch such as from busbar AO to A, data is entered as resistance 0.0 pu, reactance 0.5 pu (10% on 20 MVA base rating = 50% on 100 MVA base or 0.5 pu), susceptance 0.0 pu (unknown but very small compared to inductive reactance), load limit 20 MVA, from bus AO voltage 6 kV to bus A voltage 33.66 kV (1.02 pu taking into account transformer ±5% taps). Tap ranges and short-term overloads can be entered in more detail depending upon the exact program being used.

1.2.2.4 Saving Data

When working at the computer it is always best to regularly save your files both during database compilation and at the end of the procedure when you are satisfied that all the data have been entered correctly. Save data onto the hard disk and make backups for safe keeping to suitable alternative media (e.g. CD, USB flash drive). Figure 1.2 gives a typical computer printout for the bus and branch data files associated with this example.

1.2.2.5 Solutions

Different programs use a variety of different mathematical methods to solve the load flow equations associated with the network. Some programs ask the user to specify what method they wish to use from a menu of choices (Newton–Raphson, Gauss–Seidel, Fast decoupled with adjustments, etc.). A full understanding of these numerical methods is beyond the scope of this book. It is worth noting, however, that these methods start with an initial approximation and then follow a series of iterations or steps in order to eliminate the unknowns and 'home in' on the solutions. The procedure may converge satisfactorily in which case the computer continues to iterate until the difference between successive iterations is sufficiently small. Alternatively, the procedure may not converge or may only converge extremely slowly. In these cases it is necessary to re-examine the input data or alter the iteration in some way or, if desired, stop the iteration altogether.

The accuracy of the solution and the ability to control round-off errors will depend, in part, upon the way in which the numbers are handled in the computer. In the past it was necessary to ensure that the computer used was capable of handling accurate floating-point arithmetic, where the numbers are represented with a fixed number of significant figures. Today these can be accepted as standard. It is a most important principle in numerical work that all sources of error (round off, mistakes, nature of formulae used, approximate physical input data) must be constantly borne in mind if the 'junk in equals junk out' syndrome is to be avoided. A concern that remains valid in selecting computing equipment is the need to ensure that the available memory is adequate for the size of network model under consideration.

Some customers ask their engineering consultants or contractors to prove their software by a Quality Assurance Audit which assesses the performance of one software package with another for a single trial network.

Figure 1.3 gives typical busbar and branch reports resulting from a load flow computation. It is normal to present such results by superimposing them in the correct positions on the single-line diagram as shown in Fig. 1.4. Such a pictorial representation may be achieved directly with the more sophisticated system analysis programs. Alternatively, the network single-line diagram may be prepared using a computer graphics program (Autocad, Autosketch, GDS, etc.) and the load flow results transferred using data exchange files into data blocks on the diagram.

1.2.2.6 Further Studies

The network already analysed may be modified as required, changing loads, generation, adding lines or branches (reinforcement) or removing lines (simulating outages).

Consider, for example, removing or switching off the overhead line branches running either from busbars A to C or from B to C. Non-convergence of the load flow numerical analysis occurs because of a collapse of voltage at busbar C.

If, however, some reactive compensation is added at busbar C – for example a 33 kV, 6 MVAr (0.06 pu) capacitor bank – not only is the normal load flow improved, but the outage of line BC can be sustained. An example of a computer generated single-line diagram describing this situation is given in Fig. 1.5. This is an example of the beauty of computer aided system analysis. Once the network is set up in the database the engineer can investigate the performance of the network under a variety of conditions. Refer to Chapter 28 'Fundamentals', Section 28.8.5 regarding Reactive Compensation principles.

1.3 SYSTEM STABILITY

1.3.1 Introduction

The problem of stability in a network concerns energy balance and the ability to generate sufficient restoring forces to counter system disturbances. Minor disturbances to the system result in a mutual interchange of power between the machines in the system acting to keep them in step with each other and to maintain a single universal frequency. A state of equilibrium is retained between the total mechanical power/energy-input and the electrical power/energy-output by natural adjustment of system voltage levels and the common system frequency. There are three regimes of stability:

(a) Steady state stability describes the ability of the system to remain in synchronism during minor disturbances or slowly developing system changes such as a gradual increase in load as the 24-hour maximum demand is approached.

(b) Transient stability is concerned with system behaviour following an abrupt change in loading conditions as could occur as a result of a fault, the sudden loss of generation or an interconnecting line, or the sudden connection of additional load. The duration of the transient period is in the order of a second. System behaviour in this interval is crucial in the design of power systems.

(c) Dynamic stability is a term used to describe the behaviour of the system in the interval between transient behaviour and the steady state region. For example dynamic stability studies could include the behaviour of turbine governors, steam/fuel flows, load shedding and the recovery of motor loads, etc.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering by C. R. Bayliss B. J. Hardy Copyright © 2012 by Elsevier Ltd. . Excerpted by permission of Newnes. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: System Studies

Chapter 2: Drawings and Diagrams

Chapter 3: Substation Layouts

Chapter 4: Substation Auxiliary Power Supplies

Chapter 5: Current and Voltage Transformers

Chapter 6: Insulators

Chapter 7: Substation Building Services

Chapter 8: Earthing and Bonding

Chapter 9: Insulation Co-ordination

Chapter 10: Relay Protection

Chapter 11: Fuses and Miniature Circuit Breakers

Chapter 12: Cables

Chapter 13: Switchgear

Chapter 14: Power Transformers

Chapter 15: Substation and Overhead Line Foundations

Chapter 16: Overhead Line Routing

Chapter 17: Structures, Towers and Poles

Chapter 18: Overhead Line Conductor and Technical Specifications

Chapter 19: Testing and Commissioning

Chapter 20: Electromagnetic Compatibility

Chapter 21: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

Chapter 22: Project Management

Chapter 23: Distribution Planning

Chapter 24: Power Quality- Harmonics in Power Systems

Chapter 25: Power Quality - Voltage Fluctuations

Chapter 26: High Voltage Direct Current Transmission

Chapter 27: Smart Grids

Chapter 28: Fundamentals

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