Transmission Electron Microscopy in Micro-nanoelectronics [NOOK Book]


Today, the availability of bright and highly coherent electron sources and sensitive detectors has radically changed the type and quality of the information which can be obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEMs are now present in large numbers not only in academia, but also in industrial research centers and fabs.
This book presents in a simple and practical way the new quantitative techniques based on TEM which have recently been invented or developed to address...

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Transmission Electron Microscopy in Micro-nanoelectronics

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Today, the availability of bright and highly coherent electron sources and sensitive detectors has radically changed the type and quality of the information which can be obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEMs are now present in large numbers not only in academia, but also in industrial research centers and fabs.
This book presents in a simple and practical way the new quantitative techniques based on TEM which have recently been invented or developed to address most of the main challenging issues scientists and process engineers have to face to develop or optimize semiconductor layers and devices. Several of these techniques are based on electron holography; others take advantage of the possibility of focusing intense beams within nanoprobes. Strain measurements and mappings, dopant activation and segregation, interfacial reactions at the nanoscale, defect identification and specimen preparation by FIB are among the topics presented in this book. After a brief presentation of the underlying theory, each technique is illustrated through examples from the lab or fab.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118579053
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 1/29/2013
  • Series: ISTE
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • File size: 4 MB

Table of Contents

Introduction  xi

Chapter 1. Active Dopant Profiling in the TEM by Off-Axis Electron Holography  1

1.1. Introduction   1

1.2. The Basics: from electron waves to phase images   3

1.2.1. Electron holography for the measurement of electromagnetic fields   3

1.2.2. The electron source   6

1.2.3. Forming electron holograms using an electron biprism   6

1.2.4. Care of the electron biprism    10

1.2.5. Recording electron holograms     11

1.2.6. Hologram reconstruction     12

1.2.7. Phase Jumps   15

1.3. Experimental electron holography     16

1.3.1. Fringe contrast, sampling and phase sensitivity    16

1.3.2. Optimizing the beam settings for an electron holography experiment    20

1.3.3. Optimizing the field of view using free lens control   21

1.3.4. Energy filtering for electron holography   24

1.3.5. Minimizing diffraction contrast    25

1.3.6. Measurement of the specimen thickness   26

1.3.7. Specimen preparation      28

1.3.8. The electrically inactive thickness     30

1.4. Conclusion   33

1.5. Bibliography    33

Chapter 2. Dopant Distribution Quantitative Analysis Using STEM-EELS/EDX Spectroscopy Techniques    37
Roland PANTEL and Germain SERVANTON

2.1. Introduction   37

2.1.1. Dopant analysis challenges in the silicon industry   37

2.1.2. The different dopant quantification and imaging methods   38

2.2. STEM-EELS-EDX experimental challenges for quantitative dopant distribution analysis    41

2.2.1. Instrumentation present state-of-the-art and future challenges    41

2.3. Experimental conditions for STEM spectroscopy impurity detection    43

2.3.1. Radiation damages   43

2.3.2. Particularities of EELS and EDX spectroscopy techniques  44

2.3.3. Equipments used for the STEM-EELS-EDX analyses presented in this chapter   49

2.4. STEM EELS-EDX quantification of dopant distribution application examples   49

2.4.1. EELS application analysis examples    49

2.4.2. EDX application analysis examples     54

2.5. Discussion on the characteristics of STEM-EELS/EDX and data processing   59

2.6. Bibliography    59

Chapter 3. Quantitative Strain Measurement in Advanced Devices: A Comparison Between Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction and Nanobeam Diffraction   65
Laurent CLÉMENT and Dominique DELILLE

3.1. Introduction   65

3.2 Electron diffraction technique in TEM (CBED and NBD)  66

3.2.1. CBED patterns acquisition and analysis   66

3.2.2. NBD patterns acquisition and analysis    70

3.3. Experimental details    71

3.3.1. Instrumentation and setup     71

3.3.2. Samples description  72

3.4. Results and discussion   72

3.4.1. Strain evaluation in a pMOS transistor integrating eSiGe source and drain – a comparison of CBED and NBD techniques  72

3.4.2. Quantitative strain measurement in advanced devices by NBD    75

3.5. Conclusion   78

3.6. Bibliography    78

Chapter 4. Dark-Field Electron Holography for Strain Mapping   81
Martin HŸTCH, Florent HOUDELLIER, Nikolay CHERKASHIN, Shay REBO, Elsa JAVON, P t c BENZO, Christophe GATEL, Etienne SNOECK and Alain CLAVERIE

4.1. Introduction   81

4.2. Setup for dark-field electron holography    83

4.3. Experimental requirements      85

4.4. Strained silicon transistors with recessed sources and drains stressors    87

4.4.1. Strained silicon p-MOSFET     87

4.5. Thin film effect   92

4.6. Silicon implanted with hydrogen     93

4.7. Strained silicon n-MOSFET     94

4.8. Understanding strain engineering     96

4.9. Strained silicon devices relying on stressor layers   97

4.10. 28-nm technology node MOSFETs    99

4.11. FinFET device   101

4.12. Conclusions    103

4.13. Bibliography    103

Chapter 5. Magnetic Mapping Using Electron Holography   107
Etienne SNOECK and Christophe GATEL

5.1. Introduction   107

5.2. Experimental    108

5.2.1. The Lorentz mode   110

5.2.2 The “φE” problem   111

5.3. Hologram analysis: from the phase images to the magnetic properties    118

5.3.1. The simplest case: homogeneous specimen of constant thickness    119

5.3.2. The general case   122

5.4. Resolutions   124

5.4.1. Magnetic measurements accuracy     124

5.4.2. Spatial resolution   126

5.5. One example: FePd (L10) epitaxial thin film exhibiting a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA)     126

5.6. Prospective and new developments     130

5.6.1. Enhanced signal and resolution     130

5.6.2. In-situ switching   131

5.7. Conclusions   132

5.8. Bibliography    133

Chapter 6. Interdiffusion and Chemical Reaction at Interfaces by TEM/EELS  135

6.1. Introduction   135

6.2. Importance of interfaces in MOSFETs     135

6.3. TEM and EELS   137

6.4. TEM/EELS and study of interdiffusion/chemical reaction at interfaces in microelectronics     137

6.4.1. Thickness measurement     138

6.4.2. Atomic structure analysis     139

6.4.3. EELS analysis    141

6.4.4. Sample preparation   143

6.5. HRTEM/EELS as a support to developments of RE- and TM-based HK thin films on Si and Ge     144

6.5.1. Introduction   144

6.5.2. HRTEM/EELS methodology     145

6.5.3. Illustrations   154

6.6. Conclusion   158

6.7 Bibliography    158

Chapter 7. Characterization of Process-Induced Defects    165

7.1. Interfacial dislocations   166

7.1.1. Si(100)/Si(100) direct wafer bonding (DWB)   167

7.1.2. SiGe heterostructures      170

7.2. Ion implantation induced defects     172

7.2.1. Defects of interstitial type     173

7.2.2. Defects of vacancy type     187

7.3. Conclusions   193

7.4. Bibliography    193

Chapter 8. In Situ Characterization Methods in Transmission Electron Microscopy     199

8.1. Introduction   199

8.2. In situ in a TEM   200

8.2.1. Temperature control and irradiation     201

8.2.2. Electromagnetic field      201

8.2.3. Mechanical    202

8.2.4. Chemistry    202

8.2.5. Light    203

8.2.6. Multiple and movable currents     203

8.3. Biasing in a conventional TEM    204

8.3.1. Multiple contacts   204

8.3.2. Movable contacts   206

8.3.3. Comparison   206

8.4. Sample design    208

8.4.1. Focused ion beam   208

8.4.2. TEM windows    209

8.5. Conclusions   211

8.6. Biblioraphy   211

Chapter 9. Specimen Preparation for Semiconductor Analysis  219

9.1. The focused ion beam tool      220

9.2. Ion-sample interaction   221

9.3. Beam currents and energies for specimen preparation    225

9.4. Practical specimen preparation    228

9.5. In situ lift-out    228

9.6. H-bar technique   232

9.7. Broad beam ion milling   233

9.8. Mechanical wedge polishing     235

9.9. Conclusion   235

9.10 Bibliography    236

List of Authors    237

Index    241

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