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Insecure transportation systems are costing our worldwide mobility-based economy as much as 6% of GDP annually. The effectiveness of security measures vary widely. In the United States, depending on the mode of transportation, it ranges from “medium effectiveness” for airports to “low effectiveness” for maritime, rail, transit, and intermodal activities. Situational awareness and interoperability are lacking as we try to deal with both natural and man-made disasters. Regardless of the transport mode, improvements are essential if governments and corporations are to address security planning, response, and national preparedness. Transportation Security examines this problem in a comprehensive manner and addresses security-based technologies and solutions to minimize risk.
* Covers air, sea, roadway, rail and public transport modes
* Offers technological solutions for mobility based problems in planning, logistics and policy to improve security, combat terrorism and ensure national preparedness
* Includes work of international experts & global examples related to transportation security
"This book provides the reader with a holistic view of our world's transportation security processes and operations. It is pioneer work..."--Ed Piper, Johns Hopkins University & Canyon College
"Dr. Bragdon’s book, Transportation Security, is extremely timely and very relevant. He is considered one of the world’s leading authorities on intermodalism and security. This book is an outstanding contribution, since it provides a comprehensive and visionary approach to global preparedness and the complex issues all nations of the world are facing."--Dr. Larry F. Lemanski, Senior Vice President for Research and Strategic Initiatives, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.
Distinguished Research Professor, as well as Director of the Center for National Preparedness at the Florida Institute of Technology, located in Melbourne, Florida, USA. He is also Associate Provost, and Dean of University College at FIT
Provide an overview of transportation security and its societal impact
Explain the purpose of this text, Transportation Security
Describe the text's organizational framework and four distinct sections
Discuss modal aspects of security
Discuss technology applications
Discuss transportation security solutions
"Where there is no vision, the people perish." —Proverbs 29:18, King James Bible
Mobility represents the cultural lifeline of civilization throughout human history, comprising all methods of transport for both economic and social survival. It is the basis by which civilization has supported the character and lifestyle of its population, surviving and evolving through time. The level of effective mobility is directly related to the transportation support system. Ideally a transport system is based on the safe, secure, sustainable, and efficient movement of people, goods, and information utilizing air, land, sea, and space. It is characterized by two mobility components: physical (e.g., nonmotorized transport, aviation, roadways, maritime, rail, transit, etc.) and electronic (e.g., utilities, satellites, distance communication, information technologies, etc.). This concept can be referred to as transcommunication (Figure 1.1). Transcommunication was collaboratively developed as part of the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements by a Habitat II task force examining the basis for an effective human habitat, in which this author participated (Habitat II, June 1996, Istanbul, Turkey).
It appears that the concept of mobility may have both social and physical characteristics. Not only is movement necessary for cultural reasons (e.g., economic and social well-being), but there also are indicators that it may have fundamental genetic roots. In other words, as humans we physiologically and psychologically require mobility as part of a comprehensive human life support system. A loss or decline in this mobility system individually and collectively brings about diminished enjoyment and freedom, while also impairing both economic and social well-being. This means that reliance on a secure system for moving people, goods, and information seamlessly is absolutely essential. However, society is at risk, because we do not have a securely integrated mobility system in place. This is evidenced by our response to both natural and man-made disasters in a growing world already containing over 6 billion people.
Today we are at risk because we have used a stovepipe management approach, addressing each transportation mode separately and independently from one another, with limited communications technology and organizational integration. Consequently, gridlock and logistical inefficiency prevail. Underoptimized movement is reducing our world's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) annually by approximately 5% (Figure 1.2). This general GDP percentage has been receiving validation reported in both the United States and Latin America. Transportation as a support system for the economy is further being exacerbated by a growing number of natural and man-made disasters that are affecting the global effectiveness of all transportation modes. Not only is there an increasing number of disasters, but also the magnitude of damage and costs inflicted on our infrastructure is rapidly rising. The infrastructure attack on the World Trade Center by terrorists commandeering commercial aircraft on September 11, 2001, represented a global wake-up call. This event demonstrated to the world that transport systems themselves could inflict profound damage upon our infrastructure and population.
Worldwide the total annual cost is estimated to be between $2.5-$4.0 trillion, if natural disasters, man-made disasters, and associated transportation gridlock are combined (Figure 1.3). The basis for this financial estimate involves combining both direct and indirect costs of impact. Sizeable numbers of the population and associated infrastructure have been severely impacted by natural disasters inflicted by hurricanes, tsunamis, cyclones, tidal waves, and earthquakes throughout the world. Hurricane Katrina has now become the costliest natural disaster in United State's history, calculated to be over $86 billion.
The loss of life from these naturally induced events is substantial. Tsunamis occur mostly in the Indian and Pacific Oceans (85% of the time) and disturb heavily populated coastal areas, with the total number of victims from the most recent such event exceeding 200,000 fatalities. Damage was inflicted across two continents and 12 countries. Tsunamis are not new phenomena, dating back to 1480 B.C. with the destruction of the city of Knossos, which was the capital of the Minoan civilization. The Myanmar cyclone in Spring 2008 has accounted for 70,000 lives, while in China the toll is reaching 50,000. The incidence of natural disasters appears to be on the increase, and the magnitude of their economic impact is growing substantially. The world's buildup of more densely populated coastal communities with increasingly valuable assets (i.e., dwellings, vehicles, roads, bridges, utilities, etc.) is escalating the financial magnitude of damage.
Today there are global examples of terrorist acts inflicted on transportation and associated infrastructure in four continents and over 40 countries worldwide. Major world cities, including New York, London, Moscow, Tokyo, Paris, Bombay, and Madrid, have been victims of physically inflicted terrorism. Certainly 9/11 and the loss of 2,948 lives caused by the use of terrorist-directed commercial aircraft gave more attention to the problem. All transport modes are at risk. It appears that public transit has become a new operational theater for terrorists, especially involving rail and bus intermodal stations. From 2003 to 2007 there have been 539 transit fatalities in the five largest terrorist attacks, with 3,363 passengers and crew injured.
Since September 11, 2001, the nation's seaports have also been increasingly viewed as potential targets for terrorist attacks. Security experts are very concerned that the ports can be an entry point for the smuggling of weapons and other dangerous materials into the United States, and cargo and cruise ships could present potentially desirable terrorist targets as well. The ports are gateways for the movement of people and goods and are industrial hubs located very close to population centers, presenting additional opportunities for terrorists. A coordinated port security program is critical to protecting the American people. The 9/11 Commission stated, "... while commercial aviation remains vulnerable it appears that ports are an even greater risk." Maritime piracy near ports is also on the rise, up 20%, compared with comparable 2007 figures. The highest number of attacks occur in the West African nation of Nigeria (22% of the total attacks, according to the International Maritime Bureau: Piracy Reporting Center), or 11 of the 49.
Clearly the entire transportation system is vulnerable to terrorism. The federal government, with congressional support, has initiated efforts, generally by mode of transport, to address this problem, primarily through the Department of Homeland Security. It has been estimated that 1,500 sites (e.g., airports, seaports, rail, transit, etc.) need to be "hardened." Airports have received the most financial attention and come closest to comprehensively addressing terrorism. However, vulnerability remains with all transportation modes. In terms of modal vulnerability, air transport has addressed the possibility of terrorism to the greatest extent but has not eliminated the problem (e.g., incomplete screening of cargo). Air transport also received by far the largest share of federal dollar support, compared with all other transportation modes (i.e., nearly 80% of the total civilian security budget). Transit, maritime, and intermodal modes of movement appear to have the highest risk potential from a possible terrorism incident perspective (Figure 1.4), since their terrorist prevention efforts still remain in the earliest stages of development and effectiveness. This could be partially explained by the budgetary resources allocated, compared with those going to aviation. In 2005 airports received $18 billion ($9 per passenger) for security, in contrast to $250 million ($0.01 per passenger) for transit and rail security, from the federal government. Beginning in 2006–2007 there began to be a slight shift in the financial allocation by transport mode, reducing the percentage given to aviation. Railroads (e.g., Amtrak) and mass transit are now beginning to show some interest in security.
All modes of transportation play an important part in the logistical system supporting movement. For example, the U.S. maritime ports offer multiuse facilities for both commercial and military transportation activities. Approximately 95% of our nation's trade, valued at nearly $1 trillion, enters or leaves our 361 seaports annually. Port safety, security, and sustainable operation are essential to the nation's economic well-being. Maritime operations and the movement of people, goods, and information do not occur in an isolated manner. A cross-modal system of road and rail is an important feature in this transportation infrastructure, along with electronic communication interface. Similarly airports, which now move higher-end commodities (5% by weight but over 35% in value), along with over 50% of all commercial passengers, cannot exist in physical isolation. Landside operations are equally important to airside operations at an airport.
This nation's lack of energy independence is impacting how we pursue needed energy resources, which remain dominated by the use of fossil fuel and petroleum-based energy resources. Until that pattern of demand is significantly modified, the United States will remain influenced by foreign interests, including terrorists who seek retribution (60% of the fuel consumed in the United States is imported, with the percentage rising annually). Record fuel costs, increasing global demand, and ethanol based fuels that are contributing to an increase in food costs all are adversely impacting non–petroleum-based countries. Energy conservation and sustainability are at the forefront of problems that need to be addressed along with global warming.
It appears that through technological innovation, the transportation system can be sustained with a combination of electro-hybrid alternatives by no later than 2020. Such a change would reduce foreign energy dependence and enhance the economy, while at the same time improving this nation's air quality and reducing the heat island effect.
A hydrogen-based system, supplemented by regenerative electric and lithium–polymer recharge systems, will become the dominant player in terms of energy delivery, thereby reducing this societal concern of fuel-based mobility (Figure 1.5). A "carhenge" petroleum-based society will be replaced by energy independence. Gas stations will be replaced by "energy centers." From cellulosic ethanol to plug-in hybrids, and ultimately hydrogen-powered fuel-cell vehicles, a permanent sustainable alternative to fossil fuel depletion is on the horizon in little more than a decade. A potential positive by-product may well be a reduction of global warming and the carbon footprint, if a concerted international initiative can be universally advanced and implemented among 211 nations worldwide.
Part I: Introduction
Chapter 1: Transportation Security and Its Impact
Clifford R. Bragdon, Ph.D., AICP, FASA
Chapter 2: Transportation Security Through
Charles P. Nemfakos
Sarah R. James
Chapter 3: The Need for a Transportation Systems
Clifford R. Bragdon, Ph.D., AICP, FASA
Chapter 4: Mobility Security and Human Behavior
Michael Workman, Ph.D.
Part II: Modal Aspects of Transportation Security
Chapter 5: Road Transportation and Infrastructure
L. David Shen, Ph.D.
Chapter 6: Aviation Security
Thomas L. Jensen
Chapter 7: Maritime Security
John C.W. Bennett, JD., LL.M.
Part III: Technology Applications to Transportation Security
Chapter 8: Computer and Transportation Systems
Peter V. Radatti, Ph.D.
Chapter 9: Intermodal Transportation Security
Robert Sewak, Ph.D.
Chapter 10:Transportation Security: Applying
Military Situational Awareness System
Technology to Transportation
William S. Pepper IV
Part IV: Transportation Security Solutions
Chapter 11:AIDC: The Foundation of Military
Corey A. Cook LCDR (Ret.)
Thomas A. Bruno
Chapter 12:Infrastructure Recovery Initiatives: A
Ralph V. Locurcio, Brig. Gen. (Ret.),
Chapter 13:Immigration and National Security:
Chapter 14:Fast Integrated Response Systems
Technology (FIRST)and Establishing a
Global Center for Preparedness
Clifford R. Bragdon, Ph.D., AICP, FASA