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Tree species differ in their effects on soil properties and biogeochemical cycles. The supply of nitrogen typically differs by two-fold under the influence of different species on the same soil types, and rates of trace gas fluxes (including NO, N20 and CH4) may differ even more. The influence of global changes on soils (and feedback between soils and the atmosphere) will depend more strongly on changes in the distributions of tree species across landscapes, than on direct effects of climate on soils.
This book examines the state of knowledge of the effects of tree species on soils, considering evidence from broad natural gradients in species distributions, and from "common garden" experiments where several species have been planted on the same site. Topics include the influence of the chemistry of forest litter on soil biogeochemistry, the dependence of soil biotic communities on tree species, and the interactions of physical, chemical and biological factors in determining the overall effects of different species.
Case studies from across North America, Europe, Russia, South America and Australia illustrate the key role played by tree species in determining long-term development and sustainability of soils.
List of contributors.
1. Gaining Insights on the Effects of Tree Species on Soils; D. Binkley, O. Menyailo.
2. Effects of British Columbia Tree Species on Forest Floor Chemistry; C.E. Prescott, L. Vesterdal.
3. Nutrient Turnover, Greenhouse Gas Exchange and Biodiversity in Natural Forests of Central Europe; S. Zechmeister-Boltenstern et al.
4. Tree Species Effects on Nitrogen Cycling and Retention: a Synthesis of Studies Using 15N Tracers; P.H. Templer.
5. Tree Species Management and Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater: a Central European Perspective; A. Rothe.
6. Plant Effects on Soils in Drylands: Implications for Community Dynamics and Ecosystem Restoration; J. Cortina, F.T. Maestre.
7. The response of Belowground Carbon Allocation in Forests to Global Change; C.P. Giardina et al.
8. How Nitrogen-fixing Trees Change Soil Carbon; D. Binkley.
9. Effects of Tree Species on C- and N-Cycling and Biosphere- Atmosphere Exchange of Trace Gases in Forests; H. Papen et al.
10. Significance of Forests as Sources for N20 and NO; K. Butterbach-Bahl, R. Kiese.
11. Microbial Processing of Humic Substances from Meadow and Forest Soils; Z. Filip, M. Tesalová.
12. Phosphorus Compounds under Different Plants in an Artificial Soil Formation Experiment; M.I. Makarov, T.I. Malysheva.
13. Short-term Microbial Kinetics of Soil Microbial Respiration — A General Parameter Across Scales? H. Santruckova et al.
14. The Influence of Stand Density on Growth of Three Conifer Species; R.S. Sobachkin et al.
15. The Siberian Afforestation Experiment: History, Methodology, and Problems; L.S. Shugalei.
16. Productivity of Six Tree Species Plantations for Three Decades in the Siberian Afforestation Experiment; V.V. Kuzmichev et al.
17. Biochemistry of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Siberian Afforestation Experiment; E.F. Vedrova.
18. Tree Species Effects on Potential Production and Consumption of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide: The Siberian Afforestation Experiment; O.V. Menyailo, B.A. Hungate.
19. The Formation of Soil Invertebrate Communities in the Siberian Afforestation Experiment; I.N. Bezkorovaynaya.
20. The Transformation of Plant Residues under Different Tree Species in the Siberian Afforestation Experiment; L.V. Mukhortova.
21. Tree Diversity and Soil Biology: A New Research Program in French Guyana; J. Roy et al.