Trends in Enterprise Knowledge Management / Edition 1

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Overview

Knowledge Management (KM) encompasses a wide range of tools and methods that are at the heart of the information and communication society and provide solutions that rely as much on organization as on technology.

This title brings together contributions from authors from a range of countries who are recognized as leading figures in this field, both in an academic and a practical sense. It describes the strategic aspects of KM and defines the underlying principles in terms of management, life cycle, process, methods and tools involved in this discipline. Several approaches to the running of KM within organizations are then discussed. The influence of KM on the performance of a company is analyzed and guidelines are given on various KM approaches that can be used to achieve specific goals.

Finally, several case studies of companies that have put KM at the heart of their organizational strategy are given to demonstrate how this approach has been put into practice.

Given the practical approach taken by this book and the considerable advantages that a good handling of KM can bring to an organization, this title will be of great interest to those involved in this field.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781905209033
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/4/2008
  • Series: ISTE Series, #626
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 292
  • Product dimensions: 6.32 (w) x 9.43 (h) x 0.86 (d)

Meet the Author

Imed Boughzala is an Associate Professor at National Institute of Telecoms, France. His field of research covers cooperative information systems and knowledge management.

Jean-Louis Ermine is Head of the Department of Information Systems at INT and is also President of the French Knowledge Management Club.

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Table of Contents

Preface 15

PART 1. Introduction 21

Chapter 1. Introduction to Knowledge Management 23
Jean-Louis ERMINE

1.1. Introduction 23

1.1.1. Knowledge: a strategic value for the firm 23

1.1.2. Objectives of KM 23

1.1.3. KM: a new and complex approach 24

1.2. The two types of approaches to KM 24

1.2.1. Knowledge elicitation 25

1.2.1.1. Tacit knowledge elicitation 25

1.2.1.2. Knowledge extraction 26

1.2.1.3. Supporting technologies for explicit (elicited) KM 27

1.2.2. Tacit KM 27

1.2.2.1. The functioning modes of knowledge communities 28

1.2.2.2. Knowledge community supervision 29

1.2.2.3. Supporting technologies for knowledge communities 30

1.3. The key factors of success in KM processes 31

1.3.1. The water lily strategy 31

1.3.1.1. The pilot project(s) 33

1.3.1.2. The federation of KM projects 33

1.3.1.3. Project deployment 34

1.3.2. Change factors 34

1.4. KM: an action for continuous progress 35

1.4.1. Knowledge cartography 36

1.4.2. The repository of KM processes 37

1.4.3. The KM actions 39

1.4.4. Piloting processes and actions 41

1.5. Conclusion 41

1.6. Bibliography 42

Chapter 2. Can One Identify and Measure the Intangible Capital of the Enterprise? 45
Patrick EPINGARD

2.1. The intangible capital: an essential and elusive concept 47

2.2. Immaterial measurement: a theoretical enigma? 54

2.3. Conclusion 62

2.4. References 63

Chapter 3. Complexity Theory: Dynamics and Non-Linearity are the Only Reason for Knowledge Management to Exist 65
Walter BAETS

3.1. Introduction 65

3.2. The knowledge era 66

3.3. The complexity paradigm 68

3.4. What should be understood by KM: the corporate view 73

3.5. Research perspective on KM 75

3.6. References 77

PART 2. Academic Studies 79

Chapter 4. Value Creation through Intangibles: Emerging Good Practice 81
Nigel COURTNEY, Clive HOLTHMAN and Chris HENDRY

4.1. Introduction 81

4.2. A remedy for our times 83

4.3. Dispensing with the mystery 84

4.4. Value creation in the 21st century 88

4.4.1. Selecting an approach 88

4.4.2. Taking a balanced view 90

4.5. Evidence of good practice 90

4.5.1. Theme 1: brand value 91

4.5.1.1. B&Q 91

4.5.1.2. Whitbread 92

4.5.2. Theme 2: knowledge 93

4.5.2.1. Bloomberg 93

4.5.2.2. The UK Fire & Rescue Service 94

4.5.3. Theme 3: innovation 95

4.5.3.1. Intercos 95

4.5.3.2. mmO2 96

4.5.4. Theme 4: reporting intellectual capital 97

4.5.4.1. Austrian Research Centers (ARC) 97

4.5.4.2. Celemi 98

4.6. Key messages 99

4.7. About the authors 100

4.8. References 101

Chapter 5. Learning-by-Doing Knowledge Externalization: From Boundary Objects to the Emergence of Tacit Knowledge 103
Jean-Michel VIOLA and Réal JACOB

5.1. Learning-by-doing KM 104

5.2. A process of externalization: knowledge strategy at Power Corp 105

5.2.1. Mapping as a knowledge audit and mapping as scenario planning 107

5.2.2. Criticality assessment scales as decision rules 107

5.2.3. Modeling as a learning tool, as co-creation of knowledge 107

5.2.4. Plans as road maps addressing more specifically the need for tacitness 108

5.3. The tacit output of externalization: the importance of boundary objects 108

5.3.1. Externalization creates critical boundary objects 109

5.3.2. Refining the classical definition of tacit knowledge 109

5.3.2.1. Tinkering 110

5.3.2.2. Judgment 110

5.3.2.3. Connectivity 110

5.3.2.4. Coordination 111

5.4. Conclusions and lessons learned 111

5.5. Bibliography 112

Chapter 6. Approaches and Methods for Valuing Knowledge Management Performance 115
Aurélie DUDEZERT

6.1. KM performance: the aims of an evaluation 116

6.1.1. The knowledge-based view: a theoretical relation between KM and organizational performance 116

6.1.2. What is performance for KM? 117

6.1.3. What is KM? 118

6.2. Method of research and inquiry 119

6.3. Macro-organizational approaches to valuing KM performance 119

6.3.1. The competitive performance of KM 120

6.3.2. The financial performance of KM 121

6.4. Micro-organizational approaches to valuing KM performance 122

6.4.1. The process-based approach to the performance of KM 122

6.4.2. The systemic approach to the performance of KM 123

6.5. Conclusion 124

6.6. References 124

Chapter 7. ICIS for Knowledge Management: The Case of the Extended Enterprise 131
Imed BOUGHZALA

7.1. Introduction 131

7.2. Concepts and definitions 132

7.2.1. Inter-company co-operation and the extended enterprise 132

7.2.2. ICIS and KM 132

7.3. MeDICIS 135

7.4. Models for ICIS design 138

7.4.1. The business model 138

7.4.2. The co-operation model 139

7.4.3. The agent model 140

7.4.4. The communication model 141

7.4.5. The co-ordination model 142

7.4.6. The CPS model 143

7.5. Discussion 144

7.6. MeDICIS life cycle 145

7.7. Conclusion 146

7.8. About the author 147

7.9. References 147

Chapter 8. Knowledge Management and Environment Scanning: A Methodological Guide to Improving Information Gathering 149
Thierno TOUNKARA

8.1. Introduction 149

8.2. Modeling of the interaction process between the corporate knowledge of the firm and its environment 150

8.3. General approach 151

8.3.1. Requirements specification for environment scanning 151

8.3.2. Description of the approach 151

8.4. Knowledge book 153

8.4.1. Methodological tools 154

8.4.1.1. Methodological tools for MASK application 154

8.4.1.2. Classification of the knowledge to be modeled according to the type of environment scanning 155

8.4.2. Case study: Renault 157

8.5. Construction of axes 157

8.5.1. Construction of a partition 159

8.5.1.1. Methodological tools for the elaboration of a partition 159

8.5.1.2. The grid of criteria for the grouping of the models into classes 159

8.5.1.3. The grid of semantic links 161

8.5.1.4. Renault case study: an example of grouping by connectivity 162

8.5.2. Extraction and grouping of information into classes 162

8.5.3. Identification of themes 163

8.5.3.1. Qualitative evaluation grid for the criticality of themes 163

8.5.3.2. Approach and illustration 163

8.5.4. Construction of the visual synthesis 164

8.6. Elaboration of the “environment scanning focus” 165

8.7. Evaluation of our approach 167

8.8. Conclusion 167

8.9. References 168

Chapter 9. The Concept of “Ba” within the Japanese Way of Knowledge Creation 171
Pierre FAYARD

9.1. A Japanese concept 172

9.2. “Elementary, my dear Watson!” 173

9.3. The Human Health Care (HHC) program 176

9.4. Shaping a new way of functioning for organizations 178

9.5. References 179

9.6. Further reading 179

PART 3. Club Workshop Studies 181

Chapter 10. The Knowledge Maturity Model 183
Jean-François TENDRON

10.1. Introduction 183

10.2. Work methodology of the commission on “Aspects économiques de la gestion des connaissances” (economic aspects of KM) 184

10.3. The Knowledge Maturity Model (KMM) 186

10.4. Use of the KMM 188

10.4.1. Raising consciousness about KM 188

10.4.2. Evaluation of a community’s maturity in terms of KM 190

10.4.2.1. Example of evaluation 190

10.4.2.2. Example of reactions 192

10.5. Perspectives 193

10.6. Conclusion 194

10.7. References 195

Chapter 11. Knowledge Mapping: A Strategic Entry Point to Knowledge Management 197
Gérard AUBERTIN

11.1. Why map corporate knowledge? 197

11.2. What knowledge and competencies should be mapped? 199

11.3. How is knowledge/competency mapping performed? 202

11.3.1. Defining the mapping goal 202

11.3.2. Identifying knowledge 202

11.3.2.1. Conceptual approach to identifying knowledge 203

11.3.2.2. Process-based approach to identifying knowledge 204

11.3.2.3. Identifying knowledge using automatic mapping tools 205

11.3.3. Building the areas of the knowledge map 205

11.3.4. Representing knowledge: the area-based mapping model 206

11.3.4.1. Formal model 206

11.3.4.2. The graphical model 208

11.4. What are the operational uses and mapping tools? 209

11.5. Knowledge mapping and criticality study 210

11.5.1. Defining criticality 210

11.5.2. The criticality study as risk assessment 210

11.5.3. Defining critical factors 211

11.5.4. Preparing an assessment schedule and performing the criticality study 212

11.5.5. Calculating area criticality 213

11.5.5.1. Different critically average values 213

11.5.5.2. Assessments differences 214

11.5.5.3. Non-discriminating criterion 214

11.5.6. Analyzing results 215

11.6. How to manage a mapping project 215

11.6.1. Opportunity study 215

11.6.2. Managing change 215

11.6.3. Action principles 216

11.7. Conclusion 216

11.8. Bibliography 216

Chapter 12. Knowledge Management and Innovation (Innovation Maturity Model) 219
Jean-Marie BEZARD

12.1. Introduction 219

12.2. The evolution and path dependence hypothesis 220

12.3. Innovation factors 221

12.3.1. Case studies 221

12.3.2. The Innovation Maturity Model (IMM) 221

12.4. Conclusion 224

12.5. References 225

Chapter 13. Technology and Knowledge Management (Technology Maturity Model) 227
Olivier LEPRETRE

13.1. Introduction 227

13.2. Knowledge diffusion vehicle 228

13.3. The limits of the diffusion of knowledge 231

13.4. The need for global vision 235

13.5. The Technology Maturity Model (TMM) 236

13.6. Following a TMM approach 237

13.7. Application of TMM 239

13.5. References 242

PART 4. Case Studies 243

Chapter 14. Once-upon-a-time Knowledge Management at Mann+Hummel Automotive France 245
Nathalie LE BRIS

14.1. The increasing importance of knowledge sharing for Mann+Hummel France 245

14.2. An approach based on core knowledge cartography 246

14.2.1. What are the needs of the employees? 246

14.2.2. A cartography that allows us to build an action plan 247

14.2.3. Actions from the Nonaka virtuous circle 250

14.2.4. A well appreciated approach 252

14.3. Implementation of lessons learned 252

14.4. Knowledge explicitation 253

14.5. Sharing of explicit knowledge 254

14.6. Direct transfer of knowledge 255

14.7. KM: an everyday task based on people more than on technology 255

Chapter 15. Thales System Engineering Community of Practice: A Knowledge Management Approach 257
Cécile DECAMPS and Michel GALINIER

15.1. Introduction 257

15.2. The knowledge sharing approach 258

15.3. The Systems Engineering Community of practice at Thales 259

15.4. Why is there a KM portal dedicated to the Systems Engineering Community? 260

15.5. The Systems Engineering portal 262

15.5.1. Functionalities supporting SE community animation and management 262

15.5.2. Functionalities supporting access to SE community people and competencies 263

15.5.3. Functionalities supporting access to documents and other kinds of content 263

15.6. Rolling out/organization 265

15.7. The associated support organization 265

15.8. Balance and perspectives 266

15.9. Bibliography 267

Chapter 16. Appraising the Knowledge in a Radio-pharmacy Center based on Process Mapping and Knowledge Domain Cartography 269
Rita Izabel RICCIARDI and Antonio Carlos DE OLIVEIRA BARROSO

16.1. Introduction 269

16.2. The importance of knowledge identification and evaluation within organizations 270

16.3. The case study 270

16.3.1. History and context of the Radio-pharmacy Center 270

16.3.2. The Center profile and key comments on its knowledge issues 272

16.4. The KM project 275

16.4.1. Study of processes 275

16.4.2. Knowledge identification (“enabling knowledge”) 275

16.4.3. Construction of the knowledge cartography 276

16.4.4. “Criticality” analysis 277

16.4.5. Setting up a KM plan of action 279

16.5. References 279

Chapter 17. Case Study: Knowledge Preservation for a Nuclear Reactor 281
Marta EPPENSTEIN

17.1. Introduction 281

17.1.1. Atucha-type reactors 282

17.2. Practical approaches 282

17.2.1. Strategy analysis 282

17.2.1.1. Different approaches to the map 283

17.2.1.2. Identification of knowledge axes 284

17.2.2. Identification of the critical knowledge: approaches 285

17.2.2.1. Rare or unable of replacement 285

17.2.2.2. Usefulness for the company 285

17.2.2.3. Difficult to obtain 286

17.2.2.4. Difficult to use 286

17.2.3. Building the knowledge map 287

17.2.4. Knowledge server 287

17.3. Technical development: analysis factors 289

17.3.1. Knowledge transfer and capitalization 289

17.3.2. Human resources 290

17.4. Conclusion 291

17.5. References 291

17.6. Further reading 292

The Authors 293

Index 295

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