Triangulating Peace: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations / Edition 1

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Does democracy reduce conflict? Triangulating Peace tackles today’s most provocative hypothesis in the field of international relations: the democratic peace proposition. Drawing on ideas originally put forth by Immanuel Kant, the authors argue that democracy, economic interdependence, and international mediation can successfully cooperate to significantly reduce the chances of war.

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Editorial Reviews

Boutros Boutros-Ghali
This book demonstrates that a stable, just and prosperous global community is not just a utopian dream but a practical possibility.
Russett (international relations and political science, Yale University) and Oneal (international studies, U. of Alabama) present a Kantian view of international relations, beginning with discussion of international systems. They address the tendency of democracy, economic interdependence, and international organizations to reduce conflict. They also discuss the clash between realism and liberalism, and apply their analysis to the contemporary circumstances. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780393976847
  • Publisher: Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
  • Publication date: 12/28/2000
  • Series: The Norton Series in World Politics Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 393
  • Sales rank: 1,180,855
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

John R. Oneal is Associate Professor and Director of International Studies at the University of Alabama. He has published in International Studies Quarterly, Political Research Quarterly, Journal of Conflict Resolution, International Organizations, and other journals. His book, Foreign Policy Making in Times of Crisis (1982), received the Edgar S. Furniss, Jr. Award from the Mershon Center at Ohio State University for contributing to the study of national security affairs.

Bruce Russett (Ph.D., Yale University) is Dean Acheson Professor of International Relations and Political Science and Director of United Nations Studies at Yale University as well as editor of the Journal of Conflict Resolution. He has taught or held research positions across the globe and has been president of the International Studies Association and the Peace Science Society (International).

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Table of Contents

Preface 9
1 International Systems: Vicious Circles and Virtuous Circles 15
The Modern State System 16
Anarchy as a Potentially Vicious Circle 22
The Creation of Virtuous Circles 24
Background and Legacy of the European Achievement 29
A Complex System of Interactions Supporting Peace 33
The Kantian Triangle 35
2 From Democratic Peace to Kantian Peace 43
Democracy as the Focus 44
Two Dimensions: Pairs of States and Individual States 47
Theories of the Dyadic Democratic Peace: Culture or Structure? 53
The Convergence and Expansion of Theories 58
Common Interests 59
Interventions 62
Conflict Management 64
Why Do Democracies Win the Wars They Fight? 66
The Domestic Conflict-Foreign Conflict Puzzle 68
Civil Wars 70
Beyond the "Democratic" Peace 71
Democracy and Political Integration 74
Legitimacy, Liberalism, and Society 76
3 Democracy Reduces Conflict 81
The Epidemiology of War and Peace 82
What Causes or Constrains States' Use of Force? 85
A Database for Epidemiological Studies of Interstate Conflict 91
Militarized Disputes 94
Influences and Constraints: Democracy 97
Realist Constraints 100
Analyzing the Global Experience of a Century 104
Was the Effect of Democracy Different in Different Periods? 111
Peaceful Autocracies? 114
Are Political Transitions Dangerous? 116
More Democracy and More Peace 122
4 Both Democracy and Economic Interdependence Reduce Conflict 125
The Liberal Peace: Classical Perspectives and Recent Research 127
Analytical Problems 133
Testing the Effects of Trade 138
Trade Does Reduce Conflict 145
Are Open Economies More Pacific? 148
Economic Growth and Conflict 151
Economic Interdependence and Peace 154
5 International Organizations Also Reduce Conflict 157
Networks of Intergovernmental Organizations 159
Why and How IGOs Might Matter 161
Indirect Effects and Reverse Causality 167
The Analysis of Dense Networks 169
International Organizations Also Reduce Disputes 171
World War I as an Example 174
Systemic Changes over Time 177
Or Is It Hegemony That Reduces Violence? 184
Coercion or Persuasion? 191
The Three Kantian Legs 193
6 Virtuous Circles and Indirect Influences 197
Two Questions We Cannot Settle Here 198
United Nations Peace-Building through Democracy 200
The Effort in Mozambique 206
Do IGOs Promote Peace, or Vice Versa? 212
Who Trades with Whom? 218
Interests, Preferences, and Alliances 228
7 Clash of Civilizations, or Realism and Liberalism Deja Vu? 239
Civilizations and Identity 242
Exploring the Effects of Civilizational Differences 246
Designing a Simple Test 250
Civilizational, Realist, and Liberal Influences on Conflict 253
What Are the Patterns of Conflict within and between Particular Civilizations? 255
Do Regional Hegemonies Reduce the Likelihood of Conflict? 260
Does the Clash of Civilizations Grow over Time? 262
Are Civilizations the Prime Mover? 264
The Insignificance of Civilizational Differences 267
8 The Kantian Peace in the Twenty-First Century 271
The Evidence for a Kantian Peace 273
Incorporating Russia and China into the Kantian System 282
Russia's Options 285
How to Avoid the Dangers of a Russia-China Alliance 286
Why Not Bring Russia into NATO? 288
How Would the Chinese React? 292
The False Hope of Hegemony 297
Appendix: Methods and Tables 307
References 331
Index 371
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