Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes

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This book uses the fundamental science of tribology as a tool to study abrasive machining processes. Understanding the tribological principles of abrasive processes is crucial to improving the efficiency, accuracy, production rate, and surface quality of products spanning all industries, from machine parts and ball bearings to contact lenses and semiconductor processes such as chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and silicon water dicing.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“The breadth of knowledge presented is excellent, providing a wide body of test to

reference regarding abrasive processes” - Dr Matthew Marshall, University of Sheffield.

“I find myself turning to Marinescu’s Tribology when I want fundamental information on

the nature of grit-workpiece contact” - Dr Jeffrey Badger, Consultant Engineer

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780815514909
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 1/14/2005
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 751
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.56 (d)

Meet the Author

W. Brian Rowe is a consulting engineer and recognized bearing expert with more than 30 years’ experience working on a wide range of machinery design problems across all industries. He has previously run courses on bearings at Coventry University in the UK and Stanford University in the USA, as well as sessions on the topic for industrial engineers in Chengdu, China. He has received awards in recognition of his work, including the Walter R. Evans Award for significant contributions to the field of rotor dynamics in 2004.

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Read an Excerpt

Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes

By Ioan D. Marinescu W. Brian Rowe Boris Dimitrov Hitoshi Ohmori

William Andrew

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-1-4377-3468-3

Chapter One


Chapter Outline 1.1 Abrasive processes 3 1.1.1 Grinding 4 1.1.2 Honing 5 1.1.3 Lapping 5 1.1.4 Polishing 5 1.2 Abrasives 5 1.3 Tribological principles 6 1.3.1 Two-body abrasion processes 7 1.3.2 Three-body abrasion processes 7 1.4 A typical grinding process 8 1.5 A tribological system 10 1.5.1 The system concept 10 1.5.2 Physical mechanisms 11 1.5.3 Application of abrasive machining tools 11 1.5.4 Process fluids, tribochemistry, and processed materials 11 1.5.5 Process trends 11 References 12

1.1 Abrasive processes

Abrasive machining processes are manufacturing techniques, which employ very hard granular particles in machining, abrading, or polishing to modify the shape and surface texture of manufactured parts.

A wide range of such processes is mostly used to produce high quality parts to high accuracy and to close tolerances. Examples range from very large parts such as machine slideways to small parts such as contact lenses, needles, electronic components, silicon wafers, and ball bearings.

While accuracy and surface texture requirements are a common reason for selecting abrasive processes, there is another common reason. Abrasive processes are the natural choice for machining and finishing hard materials and hardened surfaces.

Most abrasive processes may be categorized into one of four groups: (i) grinding, (ii) honing, (iii) lapping, and (iv) polishing.

This is not an exhaustive list, but the four groups cover a wide range of processes, which are sufficient for a study of fundamental characteristics of these processes. These four groups are illustrated in Figure 1.1. Grinding and honing are processes which employ bonded or fixed abrasives within the abrasive tool, whereas lapping and polishing employ free abrasive particles, often suspended in a liquid or wax medium.

1.1.1 Grinding

In grinding, the abrasive tool is a grinding wheel, which moves at a high surface speed compared to other machining processes, such as milling and turning. Surface speeds are typically in the range from 20 m/s (4000 ft/min) to 45 m/s (9000 ft/min) in conventional grinding. The grinding wheel consists of abrasive grains bonded together by a softer bonding material, such as vitrified or glassy bonding material, resinoid or plastic material, or metal. The behavior of these different types of abrasive tools differs greatly as described in later chapters.

In high-speed grinding, the wheel moves at speeds up to 140 m/s with wheels especially designed to withstand the high bursting stresses. Speeds greatly in excess of 140 m/s may be employed, but the proportion of applications at such speeds is small due to the expense and sophistication of the machines and techniques involved.

Although grinding can take place without lubrication, wet grinding is preferred wherever possible due to the reduced frictional losses and improved quality of the surfaces produced. Commonly used lubricants include oil in water emulsions and neat oils.

1.1.2 Honing

In honing, the abrasive particles, or grains as they are commonly known, are fixed in a bonded tool as in grinding. The honing process is mainly used to achieve a finished surface in the bore of a cylinder. The honing stones are pressurized radially outward against the bore. Honing is different from grinding in two ways.

First, in honing, the abrasive tool moves at a low speed relative to the workpiece. Typically, the surface speed is 0.2–2 m/s. Combined rotation and oscillation movements of the tool are designed to average out the removal of material over the surface of the workpiece and produce a characteristic "crosshatch" pattern favored for oil retention in engine cylinder bores.

Another difference between honing and grinding is that a honing tool is flexibly aligned to the surface of the workpiece. This means that eccentricity of the bore relative to an outside diameter cannot be corrected.

1.1.3 Lapping

In lapping, free abrasive is introduced between a lap, which may be a cast iron plate, and the workpiece surface. The free abrasive is usually suspended in a liquid medium, such as oil, providing lubrication and helping to transport the abrasive. The lap and the abrasive are both subject to wear. To maintain the required geometry of the lap and of the workpiece surface produced, it is necessary to pay careful attention to the nature of the motions involved to average out the wear across the surface of the lap. Several laps may be employed and periodically interchanged to assist this process.

1.1.4 Polishing

Polishing, like lapping, also employs free abrasive. In this case, pressure is applied on the abrasive through a conformable pad or soft cloth. This allows the abrasive to follow the contours of the workpiece surface and limits the penetration of individual grains into the surface. Polishing with a fine abrasive is a very gentle abrasive action between the grains and the workpiece, thus ensuring a very small scratch depth.

The main purpose of polishing is to modify the surface texture rather than the shape. Highly reflective mirror surfaces can be produced by polishing. Material is removed at a very low rate. Consequently, the geometry of the surface needs to conform to the correct shape or very close to the correct shape before polishing is commenced.

1.2 Abrasives

In all four classes of abrasive machining processes, the abrasive grain is harder than the workpiece at the point of interaction. This means that the grain must be harder than the workpiece at the temperature of the interaction. Since these temperatures of short duration can be very high, the abrasive grains must retain their hardness even when hot. This is true in all abrasive processes, without exception, since if the workpiece is harder than the grain, it is the grain that will suffer most wear.

Some typical hardness values of abrasive grains are given in Table 1.1 based on data published by De Beers and by wheel manufacturers (Rowe, 2009). Values for typical steels are given for comparison. The values given are approximate since variations can arise due to the particular form and composition of the abrasive and also due to the direction of loading.

The hardness of the abrasive is substantially reduced at typical contact temperatures between a grain and a workpiece. At 1000 °C, the hardness of most abrasives is approximately halved. Cubic boron nitride (CBN) retains its hardness better than most abrasives, which makes it a wear-resistant material. Fortunately, the hardness of the workpiece is also reduced. As can be seen from Table 1.1, the abrasive grains are at least one order of magnitude harder than typical hardened steels.

The most common abrasives are aluminum oxide and silicon carbide. These abrasives are available in a number of different compositions, are inexpensive, and are widely available.

Diamond and CBN abrasives are much more expensive, but are finding increasing applications due to their increased hardness and wear resistance.

1.3 Tribological principles

The scientific principles underlying abrasive machining processes lie within the domain of tribology. Tribology is defined as the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion (HMSO, 1966). Tribology is primarily concerned with the study of friction, lubrication, and wear.

In machining, material removal from the workpiece is referred to rather than wear. The idea that material is cleanly cut away from the workpiece is preferred to material being rubbed away. However, cutting and rubbing are merely two aspects of abrasion as will be discussed in Chapter 5, "Friction, Forces, and Energy." Whereas in a bearing, the usual objective is to minimize wear of a critical machine element, in abrasive machining the objective is more likely to maximize removal rate.

In abrasive machining, the main objectives are usually to minimize friction and wear of the abrasive while maximizing abrasive wear of the workpiece. Other objectives are concerned with the quality of the workpiece, including the achievement of a specified surface texture and avoidance of thermal damage.

In tribological terms, grinding and honing involve two-body abrasion, while lapping and polishing may be considered as three-body abrasion processes. These terms are illustrated in Figure 1.2.

1.3.1 Two-body abrasion processes

The relative motion between the abrasive and the workpiece in most processes is almost pure sliding. The abrasive tool is a structure consisting of bonded abrasive and the workpiece. In practice, there is usually an element of three-body abrasion as explained in the following section.

1.3.2 Three-body abrasion processes

In three-body abrasion, free abrasive grains are deliberately introduced between the tool surface and the workpiece surface. The abrasive grains are usually suspended within a liquid or a wax. The grains are free to rotate and slide, experiencing collisions both with the workpiece and with the tool pad and other abrasive grains. From an energy viewpoint, this is obviously a less efficient process since each collision leads to wasted energy dissipation. However, an advantage of the three-body process is that as the grains rotate, new cutting edges can be brought into action.

In practice, a two-body abrasive process involves an element of three-body abrasion, since abraded material from the workpiece and fractured abrasive particles from the grains can form a three-body action in grinding and honing. In general, three-body action in two-body processes is an effect, which causes quality problems, since the loose material can become embedded in the workpiece surface. Embedded particles detract from the surface texture and create an abrasive finished surface on the workpiece, which can damage other surfaces with which the part comes into contact.

1.4 A typical grinding process

Figure 1.3 illustrates a typical reciprocating grinding operation. The five main elements are the grinding wheel, the workpiece, the grinding fluid, the atmosphere, and the grinding swarf. The grinding wheel performs the machining of the workpiece, although there is also an inevitable reverse process. The workpiece wears the grinding wheel.

The grinding swarf includes chips cut from the workpiece mixed with a residue of grinding fluid and worn particles from the abrasive grains of the wheel. The swarf can be considered as an undesirable outcome of the process, although not necessarily valueless.

The grinding fluid serves three main objectives:

• Lubrication and reduction of friction between the abrasive grains, the chips, and the workpiece in the contact zone.

• Cooling the workpiece and reducing temperature rise of the bulk of the workpiece material within and outside the contact zone.

• Flushing away the grinding swarf to minimize three-body abrasion.

Although it may not be immediately obvious, the atmosphere also plays an important role. Most metals, when machined, experience increased chemical reactivity, due to two effects:

• Nascent surfaces created in the cutting process are much more highly reactive than an already oxidized surface.

• High temperatures at the interfaces between the grain and the workpiece, and the grain and the chip, also increase the speed of reaction.

This results in rapid formation of oxides or other compounds on the underside of the chips and on the new surfaces of the workpiece.

Oxides of low shear strength assist the lubrication of the process and reduce friction at conventional grinding speeds. The lubrication effect of the oxides reduces with increasing grinding speeds.

The surface of the workpiece as it enters the contact zone can be considered as several layers extending from the atmosphere down to the parent workpiece material. This is illustrated schematically in Figure 1.4 for grinding with a fluid.


Excerpted from Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes by Ioan D. Marinescu W. Brian Rowe Boris Dimitrov Hitoshi Ohmori Copyright © 2013 by Elsevier Inc. . Excerpted by permission of William Andrew. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1
2 Tribosystems of abrasive machining processes 13
3 Kinematic models of abrasive contacts 41
4 Contact mechanics 91
5 Forces, friction, and energy 121
6 Thermal design of processes 177
7 Molecular dynamics for abrasive process simulation 239
8 Fluid delivery 265
9 Electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) grinding and polishing 297
10 Grinding wheel and abrasive topography 343
11 Abrasives and abrasive tools 369
12 Conditioning of abrasive wheels 457
13 Loose abrasive processes 499
14 Process fluids for abrasive machining 531
15 Tribochemistry of abrasive machining 587
16 Processed materials 635
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