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Tribology of Ceramics and Composites: Materials Science Perspective / Edition 1

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Overview

This book helps students and practicing scientists alike understand that a comprehensive knowledge about the friction and wear properties of advanced materials is essential to further design and development of new materials. With important introductory chapters on the fundamentals, processing, and applications of tribology, the book then examines in detail the nature and properties of materials, the friction and wear of structural ceramics, bioceramics, biocomposites, and nanoceramics, as well as lightweight composites and the friction and wear of ceramics in a cryogenic environment.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470522639
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 10/11/2011
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 550
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Bikramjit Basu, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (on leave) and currently at the Materials Research Center, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

Mitjan Kalin, PhD, is Professor and Head of the Centre for Tribology and Technical Diagnostics at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, where he is also Vice-Dean for Research and International Affairs in the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE xvii

FOREWORD BY PROF. IAN HUTCHINGS xxi

FOREWORD BY PROF. KARL-HEINZ ZUM GAHR xxiii

ABOUT THE AUTHORS xxv

SECTION I FUNDAMENTALS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 3

References 6

CHAPTER 2 OVERVIEW: TRIBOLOGICAL MATERIALS 7

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Definition and Classification of Ceramics 8

2.3 Properties of Structural Ceramics 9

2.4 Applications of Structural Ceramics 11

2.5 Closing Remarks 14

References 16

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CERAMICS 18

3.1 Theory of Brittle Fracture 18

3.2 Cracking in Brittle Materials 23

3.3 Definition and Measurement of Basic Mechanical Properties 24

3.4 Toughening Mechanisms 33

3.5 Closing Remarks 37

References 37

CHAPTER 4 SURFACES AND CONTACTS 39

4.1 Surface Roughness 39

4.2 Surface Topography and Asperities 41

4.3 Real Contact Area 42

4.4 Contact Load Distribution and Hertzian Stresses 44

4.5 Closing Remarks 47

References 48

CHAPTER 5 FRICTION 49

5.1 Introduction 49

5.2 Laws of Friction 49

5.3 Friction Mechanisms 51

5.4 Friction of Common Engineering Materials 54

5.5 Closing Remarks 58

References 59

CHAPTER 6 FRICTIONAL HEATING AND CONTACT TEMPERATURE 60

6.1 Tribological Process and Contact Temperature 60

6.2 Concept of “Bulk” and “Flash” Temperature 61

6.3 Importance and Relevance of Some Ready-to-Use Analytical Models 63

6.4 Review of Some Frequently Employed Ready-to-Use Models 64

References 68

CHAPTER 7 WEAR MECHANISMS 70

7.1 Introduction 70

7.2 Classification of Wear Mechanisms 72

7.3 Closing Remarks 98

References 99

CHAPTER 8 LUBRICATION 101

8.1 Lubrication Regimes 101

8.2 Stribeck Curve 107

References 109

SECTION II FRICTION AND WEAR OF STRUCTURAL CERAMICS

CHAPTER 9 OVERVIEW: STRUCTURAL CERAMICS 113

9.1 Introduction 113

9.2 Zirconia Crystal Structures and Transformation Characteristics of Tetragonal Zirconia 114

9.3 Transformation Toughening 116

9.4 Stabilization of Tetragonal Zirconia 117

9.5 Different Factors Infl uencing Transformation Toughening 118

9.6 Stress-Induced Microcracking 125

9.7 Development of SiAlON Ceramics 126

9.8 Microstructure of S-sialon Ceramics 127

9.9 Mechanical Properties and Crack Bridging of SiAlON Ceramic 129

9.10 Properties of Titanium Diboride Ceramics 132

References 138

CHAPTER 10 CASE STUDY: TRANSFORMATION-TOUGHENED ZIRCONIA 142

10.1 Background 142

10.2 Wear Resistance 144

10.3 Morphological Characterization of the Worn Surfaces 146

10.4 Zirconia Phase Transformation and Wear Behavior 149

10.5 Wear Mechanisms 152

10.6 Relationship among Microstructure, Toughness, and Wear 154

10.7 Infl uence of Humidity on Tribological Properties of Self-Mated Zirconia 156

10.8 Wear Mechanisms in Different Humidity 157

10.9 Tribochemical Wear in High Humidity 160

10.10 Closing Remarks 163

References 164

CHAPTER 11 CASE STUDY: SIALON CERAMICS 167

11.1 Introduction 167

11.2 Materials and Experiments 168

11.3 Tribological Properties of Compositionally Tailored Sialon versus β-Sialon 172

11.4 Tribological Properties of S-Sialon Ceramic 179

11.5 Concluding Remarks 182

References 183

CHAPTER 12 CASE STUDY: MAX PHASE—TI3SIC2 185

12.1 Background 185

12.2 Frictional Behavior 188

12.3 Wear Resistance and Wear Mechanisms 188

12.4 Raman Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy Analysis 190

12.5 Transition in Wear Mechanisms 193

12.6 Summary 194

References 195

CHAPTER 13 CASE STUDY: TITANIUM DIBORIDE CERAMICS AND COMPOSITES 197

13.1 Introduction 197

13.2 Materials and Experiments 198

13.3 Tribological Properties of TiB2–MoSi2 Ceramics 200

13.4 Tribological Properties of TiB2–TiSi2 Ceramics 204

13.5 Closing Remarks 206

References 208

SECTION III FRICTION AND WEAR OF BIOCERAMICS AND BIOCOMPOSITES

CHAPTER 14 OVERVIEW: BIOCERAMICS AND BIOCOMPOSITES 213

14.1 Introduction 213

14.2 Some Useful Definitions and Their Implications 215

14.3 Experimental Evaluation of Biocompatibility 217

14.4 Wear of Implants 221

14.5 Coating on Metals 223

14.6 Glass-Ceramics 224

14.7 Biocompatible Ceramics 226

14.8 Outlook 228

References 229

CHAPTER 15 CASE STUDY: POLYMER-CERAMIC BIOCOMPOSITES 233

15.1 Introduction 233

15.2 Materials and Experiments 235

15.3 Frictional Behavior 237

15.4 Wear-Resistance Properties 240

15.5 Wear Mechanisms 242

15.6 Correlation among Wear Resistance, Wear Mechanisms, Material Properties, and Contact Pressure 247

15.7 Concluding Remarks 248

References 249

CHAPTER 16 CASE STUDY: NATURAL TOOTH AND DENTAL RESTORATIVE MATERIALS 251

16.1 Introduction 251

16.2 Materials and Methods 254

16.3 Tribological Tests on Tooth Material 255

16.4 Production and Characterization of Glass-Ceramics 255

16.5 Wear Experiments on Glass-Ceramics 256

16.6 Microstructure and Hardness of Human Tooth Material 257

16.7 Tribological Properties of Human Tooth Material 260

16.8 Wear Properties of Glass-Ceramics 262

16.9 Discussion of Wear Mechanisms of Glass-Ceramics 266

16.10 Comparison with Existing Glass-Ceramic Materials 271

16.11 Concluding Remarks 273

References 274

CHAPTER 17 CASE STUDY: GLASS-INFILTRATED ALUMINA 276

17.1 Introduction 276

17.2 Materials and Experiments 277

17.3 Frictional Properties 278

17.4 Wear Resistance and Wear Mechanisms 278

17.5 Wear Debris Analysis and Tribochemical Reactions 282

17.6 Influence of Glass Infi ltration on Wear Properties 283

17.7 Concluding Remarks 284

References 285

CHAPTER 18 TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CERAMIC BIOCOMPOSITES 287

18.1 Background 287

18.2 Tribological Properties of Mullite-Reinforced Hydroxyapatite 288

18.3 Friction and Wear Rate 288

18.4 Concluding Remarks 298

References 302

SECTION IV FRICTION AND WEAR OF NANOCERAMICS

CHAPTER 19 OVERVIEW: NANOCERAMIC COMPOSITES 307

19.1 Introduction 307

19.2 Processing of Bulk Nanocrystalline Ceramics 309

19.3 Overview of Developed Nanoceramics and Ceramic Nanocomposites 309

19.4 Overview of Tribological Properties of Ceramic Nanocomposites 318

19.5 Concluding Remarks 320

References 322

CHAPTER 20 CASE STUDY: NANOCRYSTALLINE YTTRIA-STABILIZED TETRAGONAL ZIRCONIA POLYCRYSTALLINE CERAMICS 325

20.1 Introduction 325

20.2 Materials and Experiments 327

20.3 Tribological Properties 329

20.4 Tribomechanical Wear of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Nanoceramic with Varying Yttria Dopant 330

20.5 Comparison with Other Stabilized Zirconia Ceramics 335

20.6 Concluding Remarks 335

References 336

CHAPTER 21 CASE STUDY: NANOSTRUCTURED TUNGSTEN CARBIDE–ZIRCONIA NANOCOMPOSITES 338

21.1 Introduction 338

21.2 Materials and Experiments 339

21.3 Friction and Wear Characteristics 340

21.4 Wear Mechanisms 345

21.5 Explanation of High Wear Resistance of Ceramic Nanocomposites 347

21.6 Concluding Remarks 349

References 349

SECTION V LIGHTWEIGHT COMPOSITES AND CERMETS

CHAPTER 22 OVERVIEW: LIGHTWEIGHT METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES AND CERMETS 353

22.1 Development of Metal Matrix Composites 353

22.2 Development of Cermets 356

References 358

CHAPTER 23 CASE STUDY: MAGNESIUM–SILICON CARBIDE PARTICULATEREINFORCED COMPOSITES 362

23.1 Introduction 362

23.2 Materials and Experiments 363

23.3 Load-Dependent Friction and Wear Properties 363

23.4 Fretting-Duration-Dependent Tribological Properties 366

23.5 Tribochemical Wear of Magnesium–Silicon Carbide Particulate-Reinforced Composites 371

23.6 Concluding Remarks 375

References 376

CHAPTER 24 CASE STUDY: TITANIUM CARBONITRIDE–NICKELBASED CERMETS 377

24.1 Introduction 377

24.2 Materials and Experiments 379

24.3 Energy Dissipation and Abrasion at Low Load 381

24.4 Influence of Type of Secondary Carbides on Sliding Wear of Titanium Carbonitride–Nickel Cermets 386

24.5 Tribochemical Wear of Titanium Carbonitride–Based Cermets 387

24.6 Influence of Tungsten Carbide Content on Load-Dependent Sliding Wear Properties 393

24.7 High Temperature Wear of Titanium Carbonitride–Nickel Cermets 397

24.8 Summary of Key Results 403

References 404

CHAPTER 25 CASE STUDY: (W,Ti)C–CO CERMETS 407

25.1 Introduction 407

25.2 Materials and Experiments 408

25.3 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties 409

25.4 Wear Properties 410

25.5 Correlation between Mechanical Properties and Wear Resistance 413

25.6 Concluding Remarks 418

References 419

SECTION VI FRICTION AND WEAR OF CERAMICS IN A CRYOGENIC ENVIRONMENT

CHAPTER 26 OVERVIEW: CRYOGENIC WEAR PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 423

26.1 Background 423

26.2 Designing a High-Speed Cryogenic Wear Tester 425

26.3 Summary of Results Obtained with Ductile Metals 427

26.4 Summary 437

References 437

CHAPTER 27 CASE STUDY: SLIDING WEAR OF ALUMINA IN A CRYOGENIC ENVIRONMENT 439

27.1 Background 439

27.2 Materials and Experiments 440

27.3 Tribological Properties of Self-Mated Alumina 442

27.4 Genesis of Tribological Behavior in a Cryogenic Environment 449

27.5 Concluding Remarks 452

References 452

CHAPTER 28 CASE STUDY: SLIDING WEAR OF SELF-MATED TETRAGONAL ZIRCONIA CERAMICS IN LIQUID NITROGEN 454

28.1 Introduction 454

28.2 Materials and Experiments 456

28.3 Friction of Self-Mated Y-TZP Material in LN2 456

28.4 Cryogenic Wear of Zirconia 459

28.5 Cryogenic Sliding-Induced Zirconia Phase Transformation 460

28.6 Wear Mechanisms of Zirconia in LN2 464

28.7 Concluding Remarks 466

References 467

CHAPTER 29 CASE STUDY: SLIDING WEAR OF SILICON CARBIDE IN A CRYOGENIC ENVIRONMENT 469

29.1 Introduction 469

29.2 Materials and Experiments 470

29.3 Friction and Wear Properties 470

29.4 Thermal Aspect and Limited Tribochemical Wear 473

29.5 Tribomechanical Stress-Assisted Deformation and Damage 479

29.6 Comparison with Sliding Wear Properties of Oxide Ceramics 481

29.7 Concluding Remarks 482

References 483

SECTION VII WATER-LUBRICATED WEAR OF CERAMICS

CHAPTER 30 FRICTION AND WEAR OF OXIDE CERAMICS IN AN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENT 487

30.1 Background 487

30.2 Tribological Behavior of Alumina in an Aqueous Solution 488

30.3 Tribological Behavior of Self-Mated Zirconia in an Aqueous Environment 493

30.4 Concluding Remarks 499

References 500

SECTION VIII CLOSURE

CHAPTER 31 PERSPECTIVE FOR DESIGNING MATERIALS FOR TRIBOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 505

INDEX 509

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