True Gardens of the Gods: Californian-Australian Environmental Reform, 1860-1930

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Overview

One of the most critical environmental challenges facing both Californians and Australians in the 1860s involved the aftermath of the gold rushes. Settlers on both continents faced the disruptive impacts of mining, grazing, and agriculture; in response to these challenges, environmental reformers attempted to remake the natural environment into an idealized garden landscape. As this cutting-edge history shows, an important result of this nineteenth-century effort to "renovate" nature was a far-reaching exchange of ideas between the United States—especially in California—and Australia. Ian Tyrrell demonstrates how Californians and Australians shared plants, insects, personnel, technology, and dreams, creating a system of environmental exchange that transcended national and natural boundaries. True Gardens of the Gods traces a new nineteenth-century environmental sensibility that emerged from the collision of European expansion with these frontier environments.

Tyrrell traces historical ideas and personalities, provides in-depth discussions of introduced plants species (such as the eucalyptus and Monterey Pine), looks at a number of scientific programs of the time, and measures the impact of race, class, and gender on environmental policy. The book represents a new trend toward studying American history from a transnational perspective, focusing especially on a comparison of American history with the history of similar settler societies. Through the use of original research and an innovative methodology, this book offers a new look at the history of environmentalism on a regional and global scale.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780520213463
  • Publisher: University of California Press
  • Publication date: 3/15/1999
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 327
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.88 (d)

Meet the Author

Ian Tyrrell is Professor of History at the University of New South Wales, Sydney. He is the author of The Absent Marx: Class Analysis and Liberal History in Twentieth Century America (1986), and Woman's World/Woman's Empire: The Woman's Christian Temperance Union in
International Perspective
(1991).

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments
Introduction: True Gardens of the Gods 1
1 Renovating Nature: Marsh, Mueller, and Acclimatization 17
2 Wheat, Fruit, and Henry George: The Political Economy of California Horticulture 36
3 Trees in the Garden: The Australian Invasion 56
4 The Remarkable Pines of Monterey: Californian Softwoods in Australasia 87
5 Irrigation and the Garden in California: Popular Thought 103
6 Dreams and Ditches: Deakin, Australian Irrigation, and the Californian Model 121
7 Transplanting Garden Landscapes: The Chaffey Ventures and Their Aftermath 141
8 To Australia and Back: Elwood Mead and the Vision of Closer Settlement 154
9 Bug versus Bug: California's Struggle for Biological Control 174
10 Blasting the Cactus: Biological Control in Australia 200
Epilogue: The Death of the Garden? 217
Notes 231
Bibliography 291
Index 301
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