Trust in Cyberspace: / Edition 1

Trust in Cyberspace: / Edition 1

by Schneider, Fred B.;Information Systems Trustworthiness, Committee on;Commission on Physical Scienc, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, National Research Council
     
 

ISBN-10: 0309065585

ISBN-13: 9780309065580

Pub. Date: 01/08/1999

Publisher: National Academies Press

Whether or not you use a computer, you probably use a telephone, electric power, and a bank. Although you may not be aware of their presence, networked computer systems are increasingly becoming an integral part of your daily life. Yet, if such systems perform poorly or don't work at all, then they can put life, liberty, and property at tremendous risk. Is the

Overview

Whether or not you use a computer, you probably use a telephone, electric power, and a bank. Although you may not be aware of their presence, networked computer systems are increasingly becoming an integral part of your daily life. Yet, if such systems perform poorly or don't work at all, then they can put life, liberty, and property at tremendous risk. Is the trust that we--as individuals and as a society--are placing in networked computer systems justified? And if it isn't, what can we do to make such systems more trustworthy?

This book provides an assessment of the current state of the art procedures for building trustworthy networked information systems. It proposes directions for research in computer and network security, software technology, and system architecture. In addition, the book assesses current technical and market trends in order to better inform public policy as to where progress is likely and where incentives could help. Trust in Cyberspace offers insights into:

--The strengths and vulnerabilities of the telephone network and Internet, the two likely building blocks of any networked information system.

--The interplay between various dimensions of trustworthiness: environmental disruption, operator error, "buggy" software, and hostile attack.

--The implications for trustworthiness of anticipated developments in hardware and software technology, including the consequences of mobile code.

--The shifts in security technology and research resulting from replacing centralized mainframes with networks of computers.

--The heightened concern for integrity and availability where once only secrecy mattered.

--The way in which federal research funding levels and practices have affected the evolution and current state of the science and technology base in this area.

You will want to read this book if your life is touched in any way by computers or telecommunications. But then, whose life isn't?

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780309065580
Publisher:
National Academies Press
Publication date:
01/08/1999
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
352
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1(11)
1 INTRODUCTION
12(14)
Trustworthy Networked Information Systems
13(2)
What Erodes Trust
15(5)
This Study in Context
20(1)
Scope of This Study
21(2)
References
23(3)
2 PUBLIC TELEPHONE NETWORK AND INTERNET TRUSTWORTHINESS
26(36)
Network Design
27(10)
The Public Telephone Network
27(1)
Network Services and Design
27(1)
Authentication
28(1)
The Internet
29(1)
Network Services and Design
29(4)
Authentication (and other Security Protocols)
33(3)
Findings
36(1)
Network Failures and Fixes
37(18)
Environmental Disruption
37(1)
Link Failures
37(1)
Congestion
38(3)
Findings
41(1)
Operational Errors
41(4)
Findings
45(1)
Software and Hardware Failures
45(2)
Finding
47(1)
Malicious Attacks
47(1)
Attacks on the Telephone Network
47(1)
Routing Attacks
48(1)
Database Attacks
48(2)
Facilities
50(1)
Findings
50(1)
Attacks on the Internet
50(1)
Name Server Attacks
51(1)
Routing System Attacks
51(3)
Protocol Design and Implementation Flaws
54(1)
Findings
55(1)
Emerging Issues
55(4)
Internet Telephony
55(1)
Finding
56(1)
Is the Internet Ready for "Prime Time"?
56(2)
Findings
58(1)
References
59(3)
3 SOFTWARE FOR NETWORKED INFORMATION SYSTEMS
62(47)
Introduction
62(4)
Background
62(2)
The Role of Software
64(2)
Development of a Networked Information System
66(1)
System Planning, Requirements, and Top-level Design
66(16)
Planning and Program Management
66(2)
Requirements at the Systems Level
68(1)
Background
68(1)
The System Requirements Document
69(1)
Notation and Style
70(2)
Where to Focus Effort in Requirements Analysis and Documentation
72(2)
Top-level Design
74(2)
Critical Components
76(1)
The Integration Plan
77(1)
Project Structure, Standards, and Process
78(3)
Barriers to Acceptance of New Software Technologies
81(1)
Findings
81(1)
Building and Acquiring Components
82(10)
Component-level Requirements
82(2)
Component Design and Implementation
84(1)
Programming Languages
85(1)
Systematic Reuse
86(1)
Commercial Off-the-Shelf Software
87(1)
The Changing Role of COTS Software
87(2)
General Problems with COTS Components
89(1)
Interfacing Legacy Software
90(1)
Findings
91(1)
Integrating Components into a Trustworthy System
92(12)
System Integration
92(2)
System Assurance
94(1)
Review and Inspection
94(1)
Formal Methods
95(6)
Testing
101(1)
System Evolution
102(1)
Findings
103(1)
References
104(5)
4 REINVENTING SECURITY
109(45)
Introduction
109(2)
Evolution of Security Needs and Mechanisms
110(1)
Access Control Policies
111(10)
Shortcomings of Formal Policy Models
115(3)
A New Approach
118(2)
Findings
120(1)
Identification and Authentication Mechanisms
121(3)
Network-based Authentication
121(1)
Cryptographic Authentication
122(1)
Token-based Mechanisms
123(1)
Biometric Techniques
123(1)
Findings
124(1)
Cryptography and Public-Key Infrastructure
124(8)
Findings
127(1)
The Key-Management Problem
127(1)
Key-Distribution Centers
127(1)
Certification Authorities
128(1)
Actual Deployments of Large-scale Key-Distribution Centers and Certification Authorities
129(1)
Public-Key Infrastructure
130(2)
Findings
132(1)
Network Access Control Mechanisms
132(7)
Closed User Groups
132(1)
Virtual Private Networks
133(1)
Firewalls
134(1)
Limitations of Firewalls
135(2)
Guards
137(1)
Findings
138(1)
Foreign Code and Application-level Security
139(10)
The ActiveX Approach
141(1)
The Java Approach
142(1)
Findings
142(1)
Fine-grained Access Control and Application Security
143(2)
Findings
145(1)
Language-based Security: Software Fault Isolation and Proof-carrying Code
146(3)
Findings
149(1)
Denial of Service
149(2)
Findings
150(1)
References
151(3)
5 TRUSTWORTHY SYSTEMS FROM UNTRUSTWORTHY COMPONENTS
154(17)
Replication and Diversity
155(3)
Amplifying Reliability
155(2)
Amplifying Security
157(1)
Findings
158(1)
Monitor, Detect, Respond
158(3)
Limitations in Detection
158(1)
Response and Reconfiguration
159(1)
Perfection and Pragmatism
160(1)
Findings
161(1)
Placement of Trustworthiness Functionality
161(7)
Public Telephone Network
162(1)
Internet
163(1)
Minimum Essential Information Infrastructure
164(3)
Findings
167(1)
Nontraditional Paradigms
168(1)
Finding
169(1)
References
169(2)
6 THE ECONOMIC AND PUBLIC POLICY CONTEXT
171(69)
Risk Management
172(8)
Risk Assessment
173(1)
Nature of Consequences
174(2)
Risk Management Strategies
176(3)
Selecting a Strategy
179(1)
Findings
180(1)
Consumers and Trustworthiness
180(10)
Consumer Costs
181(1)
Direct Costs
181(1)
Indirect Costs
182(1)
Failure Costs
183(1)
Imperfect Information
184(2)
Issues Affecting Risk Management
186(2)
Some Market Observations
188(1)
Findings
189(1)
Producers and Trustworthiness
190(9)
The Larger Marketplace and the Trend Toward Homogeneity
190(1)
Risks of Homogeneity
191(1)
Producers and Their Costs
192(1)
Costs of Integration and Testing
193(1)
Identifying the Specific Costs Associated with Trustworthiness
193(1)
Time to Market
194(1)
Other Issues
194(2)
The Market for Trustworthiness
196(1)
Supply and Demand Considerations
197(1)
Findings
198(1)
Standards and Criteria
199(11)
The Character and Context of Standards
199(2)
Standards and Trustworthiness
201(3)
Security-based Criteria and Evaluation
204(5)
Findings
209(1)
Cryptography and Trustworthiness
210(5)
Export Controls
210(1)
Key Recovery
211(1)
Factors Inhibiting Widespread Deployment of Cryptography
211(3)
Cryptography and Confidentiality
214(1)
Findings
214(1)
Federal Government Interests in NIS Trustworthiness
215(6)
Public-Private Partnerships
219(1)
The Changing Market-Government Relationship
220(1)
Findings
221(1)
The Roles of the NSA, DARPA, and other Federal Agencies in NIS Trustworthiness Research and Development
221(16)
National Security Agency
224(2)
Partnerships with Industry
226(2)
R2 Program
228(2)
Issues for the Future
230(2)
Findings
232(1)
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
232(3)
Issues for the Future
235(1)
Findings
236(1)
References
237(3)
7 CONCLUSIONS AND RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS
240(19)
Protecting the Evolving Public Telephone Network and the Internet
241(3)
Meeting the Urgent Need for Software That Improves Trustworthiness
244(3)
Reinventing Security for Computers and Communications
247(3)
Building Trustworthy Systems from Untrustworthy Components
250(1)
Social and Economic Factors That Inhibit the Deployment of Trustworthy Technology
251(2)
Implementing Trustworthiness Research and Development
253(6)
APPENDIXES 259(60)
A Study Committee Biographies 259(8)
B Briefers to the Committee 267(2)
C Workshop Participants and Agendas 269(10)
D List of Position Papers Prepared for the Workshops 279(2)
E Trends in Software 281(4)
F Some Related Trustworthiness Studies 285(6)
G Some Operating System Security Examples 291(2)
H Types of Firewalls 293(3)
I Secrecy of Design 296(2)
J Research in Information System Security and Survivability Funded by the NSA and DARPA 298(2)
K Glossary 300(19)
INDEX 319

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