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This book deals with applications in several areas of science and technology that make use of light which carries orbital angular momentum. In most practical scenarios, the angular momentum can be decomposed into two independent contributions: the spin angular momentum and the orbital angular momentum. The orbital contribution affords a fundamentally new degree of freedom, with fascinating and wide-spread applications. Unlike spin angular momentum, which is associated with the polarization of light, the orbital ...
This book deals with applications in several areas of science and technology that make use of light which carries orbital angular momentum. In most practical scenarios, the angular momentum can be decomposed into two independent contributions: the spin angular momentum and the orbital angular momentum. The orbital contribution affords a fundamentally new degree of freedom, with fascinating and wide-spread applications. Unlike spin angular momentum, which is associated with the polarization of light, the orbital angular momentum arises as a consequence of the spatial distribution of the intensity and phase of an optical field, even down to the single photon limit. Researchers have begun to appreciate its implications for our understanding of the ways in which light and matter can interact, and its practical potential in different areas of science and technology.
List of Contributors.
1 The Orbital Angular Momentum of Light: An Introduction (Les Allen and Miles Padgett).
1.2 The Phenomenology of Orbital Angular Momentum.
2 Vortex Flow of Light: ‘‘Spin’’ and ‘‘Orbital’’ Flows in a Circularly Polarized Paraxial Beam (Aleksandr Bekshaev and Mikhail Vasnetsov).
2.2 Spin and Orbital Flows: General Concepts.
2.3 Transverse Energy Flows in Circularly Polarized Paraxial Beams.
2.4 Orbital Rotation without Orbital Angular Momentum.
3 Helically Phased Beams, and Analogies with Polarization (Miles Padgett).
3.2 Representation of Helically Phased Beams.
3.3 Exploiting the Analogous Representations of Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum.
4 Trapping and Rotation of Particles in Light Fields with Embedded Optical Vortices (Michael Mazilu and Kishan Dholakia).
4.2 Laguerre–Gaussian Light Beams.
4.3 Origin of Optical Torques and Forces.
4.4 Optical Vortex Fields for the Rotation of Trapped Particles.
4.5 Optical Vortex Fields for Advanced Optical Manipulation.
5 Optical Torques in Liquid Crystals (Enrico Santamato and Bruno Piccirillo).
5.1 The Optical Reorientation and the Photon Angular Momentum Flux.
5.2 Dynamical Effects Induced in Liquid Crystals by Photon SAM and OAM Transfer.
6 Driving Optical Micromachines with Orbital Angular Momentum (Vincent L.Y. Loke, Theodor Asavei, Simon Parkin, Norman R. Heckenberg, Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and Timo A. Nieminen).
6.2 Symmetry, Scattering, and Optically Driven Micromachines.
6.3 Experimental Demonstration.
6.4 Computational Optimization of Design.
7 Rotational Optical Micromanipulation with Specific Shapes Built by Photopolymerization (Péter Galaja, Lóránd Kelemen, László Oroszi, and Pál Ormos).
7.2 Microfabrication by Photopolymerization.
7.3 Light-Driven Rotors, Micromachines.
7.4 Integrated Optical Motor.
7.5 Angular Trapping of Flat Objects in Optical Tweezers Formed by Linearly Polarized Light.
7.6 Torsional Manipulation of DNA.
8 Spiral Phase Contrast Microscopy (Christian Maurer, Stefan Bernet, and Monika Ritsch-Marte).
8.1 Phase Contrast Methods in Light Microscopy.
8.2 Fourier Filtering in Optical Imaging.
8.3 Spiral Phase Fourier Filtering.
8.4 Implementation and Performance.
9 Applications of Electromagnetic OAM in Astrophysics and Space Physics Studies (Bo Thidé, Nicholas M. Elias II, Fabrizio Tamburini, Siavoush M. Mohammadi, and José T.Mendonça).
9.2 Ubiquitous Astronomical POAM.
9.3 Applications of POAM in Astronomy.
9.4 Applications of POAM in Space Physics.
9.A. Appendix: Theoretical Foundations.
9.A.1 Classical Field Picture.
9.A.2 Photon Picture.
10 Optical Vortex Cat States and their Utility for Creating Macroscopic Superpositions of Persistent Flows (Ewan M. Wright).
10.2 Optical Vortex Cat States.
10.3 Macroscopic Superposition of Persistent Flows.
10.4 Summary and Conclusions.
11 Experimental Control of the Orbital Angular Momentum of Single and Entangled Photons (Gabriel Molina-Terriza and Anton Zeilinger).
11.1 Introduction to the Photon OAM.
11.2 Control of the OAM State of a Single Photon.
11.3 Control of the OAM State of Multiple Photons.
11.4 Applications in Quantum Information.
12 Rotating Atoms with Light (Kristian Helmerson and William D. Phillips).
12.2 Orbital Angular Momentum of Light.
12.3 The Mechanical Effects of Light.
12.4 Rotating Bose–Einstein Condensates.
12.5 Measuring the Rotational Motion of the Atoms.
12.6 Generating Other Rotational States of Atoms.