The Two Horizons


This lucidly written survey of hermeneutics includes a thorough examination of the extent of the contribution of philosophy to the interpretation of the Bible, as well as a detailed original treatment of the work of Heidegger, Bultmann, Gadamer, and Wittgenstein. Notes; full bibliography; indexes.
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This lucidly written survey of hermeneutics includes a thorough examination of the extent of the contribution of philosophy to the interpretation of the Bible, as well as a detailed original treatment of the work of Heidegger, Bultmann, Gadamer, and Wittgenstein. Notes; full bibliography; indexes.
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780802800060
  • Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
  • Publication date: 5/2/1996
  • Pages: 508
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.13 (d)

Table of Contents

Foreword xi
Acknowledgments xiii
Abbreviations xv
Introduction xix
Part 1 Introductory Questions
I. The Nature and Scope of the Subject 3
1. Why Philosophical Description? 3
Philosophy and the hermeneutical task
Philosophy and the New Testament
2. The Underlying Problem of Hermeneutics: The Two Horizons 10
The two-sided nature of the problem
A New Testament example
3. Some Issues Which Arise from the Hermeneutical Problem 17
The New Testament and pre-understanding
II. Further Introductory Questions: Heidegger, Bultmann, Gadamer, and Wittgenstein 24
4. Heidegger, Bultmann, Gadamer, and Wittgenstein: Three General Points 24
Their importance
Description and interpretation
5. The Relation of Wittgenstein to Heidegger, Gadamer, and Bultmann 33
Secondary literature
Language-game, horizon, and world
6. Heidegger, Bultmann, Gadamer, Wittgenstein, and the New Testament 40
The earlier and later Heidegger, Gadamer, and the Fourth Gospel
Part 2 Broader Issues in New Testament Hermeneutics
III. Hermeneutics and History: the Issue of Historical Distance 51
7. The Pastness of the Past 53
Nineham's historical relativism
Criticisms of this position
8. The Emergence of Historical Consciousness 63
Lessing, Herder, Hegel, and Ranke
9. Historical Method in Ernst Troeltsch 69
History versus theology
Troeltsch's positivism
10. History and Hermeneutics in Wolfhart Pannenberg 74
His critique of Troeltsch and rejection of dualism
IV. Hermeneutics and Theology: The Legitimacy and Necessity of Hermeneutics 85
11. The Word of God and the Holy Spirit 85
The Spirit's work not independent of human understanding
12. Faith, "Timeless Truth," Time, and the Word 92
Replies to three further objections to hermeneutics
13. Understanding and Pre-understanding: Schleiermacher 103
The hermeneutical circle; Schleiermacher's earlier and later thought
14. Pre-understanding and Theology 107
Bultmann, Latin American hermeneutics, Ricoeur, and Freud
V. Hermeneutics and Language 115
15. The Restricted Hermeneutical Role of Linguistic and Semantic Investigations: Distance, Fusion, and Reference 117
Linguistics and hermeneutics in Ricoeur
Frei and Petersen
16. Respecting the Particularity of the Text; Word and Context; Hermeneutics as Translation 124
Saussure; field semantics; Kelsey and Nida on translation
17. The Relation between Thought and Language and Its Bearing on Pre-understanding in Hermeneutics 133
Whorf, Saussure, and Wittgenstein
Part 3 Heidegger, Bultmann, Gadamer, and Wittgenstein
VI. Heidegger's "Being and Time": Dasein, Worldhood, and Understanding 143
18. The Question of Being from the Standpoint of Dasein 143
Is the question of Being meaningful? Dasein as a technical term
19. Dasein, Hermeneutics, and Existenz 149
Hermeneutics and horizon; presence-at-hand
20. World and Worldhood 154
The ready-to-hand and equipment
Relation to sciences
21. State-of-mind, Understanding, and Discourse 161
Double meaning of Befindlichkeit
Fore-conception and language
VII. Further Themes in Heidegger's Earlier Thought 169
22. The Falling of Dasein: Dasein's Being as Care; Reality and Truth 169
Inauthentic existence
Truth as "letting be" what is
23. Being-towards-Death and Authentic Existence 176
An existential phenomenon
Comparison with Bultmann
24. Time, Temporality, and History 181
Dasein's temporality and historicity as the basis for time and history
25. Two General Comments on "Being and Time" and Its Relevance to Hermeneutics 187
"World" and the subject-object relation
Role of cognitive thought
26. Further Comments on Heidegger's Thought 194
Hermeneutical circle; feeling-states; hermeneutics of the "I am"
VIII. The Ingredients of Bultmann's Hermeneutical Concerns Prior to Heidegger's Philosophy 205
27. Bultmann's Relation to Liberal Theology and to Neo-Kantian Philosophy: Modern Man and Objectifying Thinking 205
Herrmann, Cohen, and Natorp
Science and objectification
28. Bultmann's Fusion of Neo-Kantian Epistemology with Nineteenth-Century Lutheranism: Objectification in Accordance with Law 212
Faith no objective basis in dogma
First hints of dualism
29. Bultmann's Indebtedness to the History of Religions School and to Current Biblical Scholarship: Kerygma and Myth 218
Strangeness of the New Testament
Weiss, Wrede, Schweitzer, Schmidt
30. Bultmann's Indebtedness to Dialectical Theology: The Final Setting of the Terms of the Hermeneutical Problem 223
Barth and Gogarten
Talk from God, not about God
IX. Further Philosophical Ingredients in Bultmann's Hermeneutics 227
31. Differing Roles of Heidegger's Philosophy in Relation to Bultmann's Hermeneutics 227
Three ways of construing the role of Heidegger's thought
32. Bultmann's Hermeneutics and the Philosophy of Wilhelm Dilthey 234
"Life" and pre-understanding in Dilthey
Legacy of Yorck
33. Bultmann's Appeal to Collingwood's Philosophy of History 240
Affinities with Collingwood not to be exaggerated
34. The Emergence of a Dualist Trend in Bultmann's View of History 245
History versus nature
Ott, Young, and Pannenberg
X. Bultmann's Hermeneutics and the New Testament 252
35. Bultmann's View of Myth 252
Three different definitions and responses to the problem
36. Bultmann's Proposals for the Interpretation of Myth 258
Misunderstandings of Bultmann's aim
Problem of the New Testament itself
37. Specific Examples of Re-interpretation in the New Testament: A Critique of Bultmann's Claims about Eschatology and Christology 263
Three principles
Objectification and contradiction
38. Further Examples: A Critique of Bultmann's Claims about the Cross and Resurrection 269
Application of the three principles and its difficulty
39. The Use of Heidegger's Conceptuality in New Testament Theology: Paul's View of Man 275
Existential interpretation of sarx and soma
Criticism of Gundry
40. Some Concluding Comments 283
Complexity of Bultmann's position
Genuine criticisms as against others
XI. Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics And Its Implications For New Testament Interpretation 293
41. The Relevance to Hermeneutics of Questions about Truth and Art 293
Limits of "method."
History of philosophy; art and the game
42. Gadamer's Critique of Hermeneutics from Schleiermacher to Heidegger 300
Criticism of Ranke, Droysen, and Dilthey
Advance of Husserl, Yorck, and Heidegger
43. The Task of Hermeneutics in the Light of Tradition and of Man's Historical Finitude 304
Pre-judgment not merely negative
Distance and the fusion of horizons
44. Hermeneutics and Language in Gadamer 310
Language and thought
Question and answer
45. Some Implications of Gadamer's Work: The Relation between Exegesis and Theology as the Problem of Fusion and Distance 314
Tradition and systematic theology
The Reformation and Stendahl's criticism
46. Further Considerations of the Issue: Exegesis and Theology with Special Reference to Diem, Ott, and Stuhlmacher 319
Wrede, Schlatter, Rahner, Schlier
Barth, Diem, Ott, Stuhlmacher
XII. The Later Heidegger, Gadamer, And The New Hermeneutic 327
47. The Malaise of Language and Thinking in the Western Language Tradition 330
The legacy of Plato
Reality and concepts
Crisis of language
48. Language-Event and a New Coming to Speech 335
Being and thought; "gathering" and art; language as the house of Being
49. Further Considerations about the Hermeneutics of Fuchs and Ebeling 342
Einverstandnis and the parables of Jesus
50. Related Approaches to the Hermeneutics of the Parables: Funk, Via, and Crossan 347
Affinities between Fuchs and Funk
Via and the existential
51. Further Assessments of the New Hermeneutic 352
Positive contribution, but also serious one-sidedness
XIII. Philosophy And Language In Ludwig Wittgenstein 357
52. The Contrast between Wittgenstein's Earlier and Later Writings and Its Significance for Hermeneutics 357
Apel, and Janik and Toulmin
Abstract logic versus language-games
53. The Earlier Writings: Propositions, the Picture Theory, and the Limits of Language 362
The nature of propositions
Logical determinacy
Saying and showing
54. Hermeneutics and the Later Writings: Language-Games and Life 370
The particular case
Surroundings, training, application
55. The Hermeneutical Significance of the Argument about Private Language and Public Criteria of Meaning 379
Public tradition versus "my own case."
Wittgenstein and Bultmann
XIV. Wittgenstein, "Grammar," And The New Testament 386
56. Grammar, Insight, and Understanding: Examples of a First Class of Grammatical Utterances 386
Eight examples in the New Testament
57. A Second Class of Grammatical Utterance and the Respective Life-Settings of the Two Classes 392
Wittgenstein's On Certainty
New Testament and classical literature
58. Class-Three Grammatical Utterances: Linguistic Recommendations, Pictures, and Paradigms 401
Examples of the issue in the New Testament
59. Language-Games, "the Particular Case," and Polymorphous Concepts 407
Examples from Wittgenstein
"Faith," "flesh," and "truth" in the New Testament
60. Language-Games and "Seeing-as": A Fresh Approach to Some Persistent Problems about Justification by Faith in Paul 415
Five persistent problems
Verdicts within different systems
61. Grammatical Relations and Dispositions: Faith in Paul and in James 422
Difference of logical grammar
Dispositional accounts of faith
Additional Note A Wittgenstein and Structuralism 428
Additional Note B Wittgenstein and the Debate about Biblical Authority 432
XV. Conclusions 439
Bibliography 464
Index of Subjects 467
Index of Names 475
Index of Biblical References 482
Index of Ancient Non-biblical References 484
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