Two Paths to Equality: Alice Paul and Ethel M. Smith in the ERA Debate, 1921-1929

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A comprehensive look at the ERA debates of the 1920s.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“This book offers fresh insights into the shifting coalitions that have driven feminist activism in the U.S. and into the evolution of the social welfare state in this country. This is an intriguing and significant book.” — Annelise Orleck, author of Common Sense and a Little Fire: Women and Working-Class Politics in the United States, 1900–1965
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780791453209
  • Publisher: State University of New York Press
  • Publication date: 4/28/2002
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 192
  • Product dimensions: 5.70 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Amy E. Butler is an independent scholar who resides in Washington, D.C. and a former member of the National Woman’s Party Board of Directors.

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Table of Contents


Introduction: The Elusive Search for Equal Rights in the Twentieth Century

1. “To the Victor Belong the Spoils”: The Merits of a Combined Suffrage and Labor Agenda, 1877–1920

2. From Charity Organization to Militant Protest: Alice Paul's Rise to Prominence, 1885–1920

3. “[S]ome Group of Women Must Keep Developing the Power of Women As a Class”: The National Woman's Party, 1921–1923

4. “Women's Biggest Battle Is Yet to Be Fought”: Ethel M. Smith and the Women's Trade Union League, 1921–1923

5. The ERA v. Women's Minimum Wage: The Legal Debate Between Paul and Smith, 1921–1923

Conclusion: Two Paths to Equality: The Difference It Makes


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