The Ultimate Church Sound Operator's Handbook

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(Music Pro Guide Books & DVDs). The Ultimate Church Sound Operator's Handbook is written to specifically address the concerns and needs of the sound person who serves ministries and churches. The modern church uses many of the same presentation tools that have become common in television, movies, and concerts, placing a unique set of technical expectations on its eager, willing, and primarily volunteer force. This comprehensive handbook blends the relational and technical aspects of church sound in a straightforward and easy-to-understand

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Overview

(Music Pro Guide Books & DVDs). The Ultimate Church Sound Operator's Handbook is written to specifically address the concerns and needs of the sound person who serves ministries and churches. The modern church uses many of the same presentation tools that have become common in television, movies, and concerts, placing a unique set of technical expectations on its eager, willing, and primarily volunteer force. This comprehensive handbook blends the relational and technical aspects of church sound in a straightforward and easy-to-understand manner. The Ultimate Church Sound Operator's Handbook will provide a leg-up to church sound operators who want to do a great job but need the perfect tool created specifically for them to gain the knowledge needed to excel and succeed.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781423419709
  • Publisher: Hal Leonard Corporation
  • Publication date: 5/15/2007
  • Series: Music Pro Guides
  • Edition description: BK & DVD
  • Pages: 440
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents


Preface     xxi
The Value in History     xxi
The Road Is Narrow     xxii
Terminology     xxiii
Qualifications for Being a Sound Operator     1
List of Qualifications     2
Listens to Music     2
Loves Music     3
Is a Proven Advocate of the Church, Pastor, Council, Organizational Structure, and Leadership     3
Agrees with Church Theology     3
Is a Church Member, Committed to the Church Mission and Vision     3
Understands the Style and Spirit of Worship Music Desired by Church Leadership     4
Is Servant-Hearted     4
Has a Positive Outlook     4
Does Not Have an Ego Problem     5
Has a Consistent Spiritual Life     5
Is Ministry-Minded     6
Is a Lifelong Learner     7
Is a Hard Worker     7
Has a Long Attention Span     7
Has a Stable Family Life     7
Pursues Excellence     8
Is Technically Gifted     8
Has Good People Skills     8
Has a Mature Perspective     9
Likes to Help Others Succeed     10
Does Not Participate in Gossip     10
IsDetermined to Become an Excellent Sound Operator     10
Summary     10
Responsibilities of a Sound Operator     11
Pray for the Worship Team     11
Commit to Spiritual Development and Growth     12
Get to Know the Team Leaders     12
F+ind Out What the Music Director Expects     13
Attend Rehearsals     13
Attend Small Group Meetings     13
Listen to Service Recordings     14
Listen to Current Worship Music     14
Be Punctual     15
Learn the Songs     15
Set Up Gear     16
Strike Gear     16
Develop Storage Systems     17
Labeling Systems     17
Snakes     19
Storage Bins and Reels     19
Mic Cases and Racks     20
Storage Hooks and Racks     20
Learn What a Good Mix Is     20
Attend Seminars and Classes     20
The Spiritual Importance of Worship and Music     21
What Is Worship?     21
The Authority of Excellence     22
The Musicians to Battle before the Soldiers     23
We Are Instructed throughout the Bible to Worship      24
Take Your Duty Seriously     26
Communicating the Heart and Word of God     26
Prayer and the Sound Ministry     26
Time, Just in Time     27
Relational Considerations     29
The Worship Service from the Minister's Viewpoint     29
Introduce the Congregation to God     30
Prepare the Congregation to Hear the Sermon     30
Create a Unified Spiritual Tone among the Congregation     30
Getting Along with Everyone     31
Bending Over Backward     31
Grace versus Judgment     31
Keep Everything in Perspective     32
An Atmosphere of Peace     32
The Sound Operator/Pastor Relationship     33
Be a Friend to the Pastor     33
Ask Your Pastor's Opinion     33
Be Understanding     33
Be Open to Criticism     34
Don't Offend Quickly     34
Pastors Are People Too     35
You Gotta Know When to Hold 'Em, Know When to Fold 'Em     35
Communicate, Communicate, Communicate     35
Ask Questions     36
Keep Track of the Leaders' Opinions     36
Conflicting Opinions and Who Wins     37
Don't Avoid the Elephant in the Room     38
Tone of Communication     38
Reasons to Stand Up and Speak Your Mind     39
Countering Blasphemy     39
Defending the Pastor     40
When the Pastor Doesn't Understand the Facts     40
Don't Sweat the Small Stuff     40
The Best Ways to Get Your Point Across     40
Prayer     40
Follow Protocol     41
List Your Concerns or Joys     41
The Worst Ways to Get Your Point Across     41
Gossip     42
Stirring the Pot     42
Setting Up Camp     42
Well...I'll Just Do It Anyway     43
The E-Mail Bomb and Why You Should Avoid It     43
Negative, Harsh, and Judgmental Attitude     44
To Get Paid or Not to Get Paid     45
The Volunteer Sound Operator     45
It Doesn't Matter if You're Paid or Not     45
Do Your Best     45
Enjoy Being Part of Ministry     46
Be Sensitive to Others     46
Be Punctual     47
The Quest for Excellence Shouldn't Change with Pay     47
The Paid-Staff Sound Operator     48
The Part-Time Gig      48
Accountability     48
Serving Multiple Ministries     49
Training Ministry Leaders     50
Building a Team     52
Developing a Volunteer Crew     52
Prayer and Share Time     53
Special Functions     53
Motivating and Assisting     54
Job Descriptions     57
Scheduling     58
Volume Issues     61
Pastoral Considerations     61
Sound Operator Considerations     63
Congregational Considerations     63
Why Volume Issues Are So Common     64
The Pastor versus the Music Director     65
Agreement Is the Solution     65
EQ versus Volume     66
Painful Frequencies versus Comforting Frequencies     67
Sound Reinforcement versus Music Presentation     67
The Decibel Meter     67
Who Is in Control?     68
Can the Congregation Hear Themselves?     69
Earning the Trust of the Team     69
Multi-Generational Considerations     71
Understanding Hearing Differences     71
Types of Hearing Loss     72
Presbycusis      72
Tinnitus     73
Conductive Hearing Loss     73
Aural Hypersensitivity     73
Hyperacusis     73
Recruitment     74
Education Is the Answer     74
Senior Citizens (Born before 1946)     75
Boomers (Born between 1946 and 1964)     75
Generation X (Born between 1965 and 1980)     76
Youth Groups     77
Children     78
Sound Theory     79
Characteristics of Sound     79
Speed     81
Cycles     82
Frequency     82
Pitch     83
Wavelength     83
Amplitude     84
Loudness     84
Phase     87
Harmonics, Overtones, and Partials     89
Shape     92
Envelope     93
Attack     93
Decay     94
Sustain     94
Release     94
Interconnect Basics     95
Speaker Cables     95
Line-Level Cables     95
Microphone Cables     96
Some Cable Theory     96
Balance of Amplitude      97
Timing Considerations     97
Do Cables Really Sound Different?     97
Digital-Interconnect Cables     98
Impedance     99
Terminology     100
Compatibility between Hi Z and Lo Z     100
Balanced versus Unbalanced     102
Terminology     102
Unbalanced Guitar Cables     103
Balanced Wiring     103
Connectors     105
RCA Connectors     105
Quarter-Inch Phone Connectors     106
XLR Connectors     107
The Dual Banana Connector     107
Speakon Connectors     108
Plugging In     109
Electrical Power     109
Powering Up     109
Powering Down     109
Ground Hum     109
Grounding     110
Ground Loops     110
Solutions to Grounding Problems     110
Connect All Equipment to the Same Outlet     111
Hire a Pro     111
Auxiliary Power Supply     111
Lifting the Ground     111
Disconnect Shield at the Destination     112
Circuit Tester     112
Danger, Danger      112
The Front-of-House Mixer     115
Signal Path     115
Input Levels     116
Comparison of Three Different Versions of the Same Mix     117
Input Stage     117
Output Impedance     117
The Preamp     118
Attenuator     119
Direct Box     120
Passive versus Active DIs     121
Meters     121
Volume Unit (VU)     121
Peak Program Meters (PPM)     122
Adjusting Levels for Transients     122
Phase     123
Input Level Comparison     125
Phantom Power     126
Mic Level     126
Line Level     126
+4 dBm versus-10 dBV     127
Channel Insert     128
Effects Bus     128
The Difference between a Live Mixer and a Recording Mixer     129
Mutes     129
Live     129
Recording     129
Outputs     130
Live     130
Recording     130
Inputs     130
Live     130
Recording     130
Solo Functions      131
Live     131
Recording     131
Portability     131
Live     131
Recording     131
Managing the Signal Path     131
Input Faders     131
Pre and Post     131
Using the Aux Bus     132
Group Assignment     133
Summing     134
Three Practical Applications for Splitting a Signal Using a Y     134
Pan     135
Gain Structure     135
Unity Gain     135
Potential Problems     136
Solo     136
PFL (Pre Fader Listen)     136
AFL (After Fader Listen)     137
Solo in Place/Mixdown Solo     137
Mutes     137
The Equalizer     137
Frequency Selection (Hertz)     138
Definition of Frequency Ranges     140
Bandwidth     141
Sweepable EQ     142
Parametric EQ     143
Graphic EQ     143
Notch Filter     144
Peaking Filters     144
High-Pass Filter     144
Low-Pass Filter     145
Band-Pass Filter      145
Shelving EQ     145
Combined Equalizers     146
The Equalizer's Sound     146
Stereo Master     146
Talkback/Communications     146
Test Tones     147
Console Layout     148
Matrix     149
Direct Outs     149
The Analog Mixer versus the Digital Mixer     150
FOH Mixer Position     150
Mono Mix     150
Stereo Mix     150
Signal Processors     153
Dynamics Processors     153
Compressor     153
To Compress or Not to Compress-That Is the Question     155
Compression Parameters     155
Threshold     155
Attack Time     156
Release Time     157
Ratio     157
Output Level     158
The Difference between a Compressor and a Limiter     158
Hard Knee versus Soft Knee Compression/Limiting     158
Peak/RMS Detection     158
Side Chain     159
Meters on the Compressor/Limiter     160
Input Level Meter     160
Output Level Meter     161
Gain Reduction Meter      161
The Limiter     161
Setup Suggestions for the Compressor/Limiter     162
Effects Processors     163
Wet versus Dry     163
Patching Effects Devices     163
Simple Delay Effects     163
Slapback Delay     164
Doubling/Tripling     165
Modulation     166
Phase Shifter     167
Flanger     167
Chorus     167
Phase Reversal and Regeneration     167
Stereo Effects     168
Reverberation Effects     169
Hall Reverb     170
Chamber Reverb     170
Plate Reverb     170
Room Reverb     170
Reverse Reverb     171
Gated Reverb     171
Other Variations of Reverberation     171
Reverberation Effects Parameters     172
Predelay     172
Diffusion     172
Decay Time     172
Density     172
Microphone Principles and Design     173
Directional Characteristic     174
Polar Response Graph     175
On-Axis     175
Off-Axis      175
Sensitivity Scale     176
Omnidirectional     176
Bidirectional     177
Unidirectional     177
Cardioid     178
Supercardioid     178
Hypercardioid     178
Ultracardioid     178
Subcardioid     178
Practical Applications     179
Operating Principle     180
Transducer Types     180
Magnetic Induction Transducers     180
Variable Capacitance Transducers     180
Operating Principle of the Moving-Coil Mic     181
Operating Principle of the Ribbon Mic     181
Operating Principle of the Condenser Mic     182
Phantom Power     184
Electret Condenser Microphones     185
Comparison between Moving-Coil, Ribbon, and Condenser Microphones     185
Moving-Coil Mics     185
Condenser Microphones     186
Ribbon Mics     187
The Shaping of the Pickup Pattern     188
Physical Housing Design     188
The Proximity Effect     190
Compensating for the Proximity Effect     191
Using the Proximity Effect to Our Advantage     191
Response Characteristic     191
Frequency Response Curve     191
Transient Response     192
Output Characteristic     192
Equivalent Noise Rating/Self-Noise     192
Sensitivity     193
Maximum SPL Rating     193
Impedance     194
Stereo Mic Techniques     194
Wireless Systems     199
Components of the System     199
Input Device     199
Transmitter     199
Receiver     200
AM and FM Systems     200
Amplitude Modulation     201
Frequency Modulation     201
VHF and UHF Systems     201
Capture Effect     202
Diversity     202
Range     203
Antenna Distribution Systems     204
Batteries     204
Diversity Indicator     205
Squelch     206
Microphones for Wireless Systems     206
Lavaliere     206
Headset     209
Lectern     209
Handheld     209
Control Which Mic Is Turned On     209
Two Mics     210
Wireless Frequency Selection      210
Mute Switch versus Power Switch     211
Caring for the Antenna     211
Adjusting Levels     212
Connecting to the Sound System     212
The Backup Plan     213
Using the Wireless System     213
Loudspeakers     215
Commercially Built Cabinets     215
Manufacturers     217
Pro Audio Suppliers     218
Crossover Configurations     218
Passive Crossover     219
Active Crossover     219
Analog versus Digital Crossovers     220
Full-Range Cabinets     220
Two-Way Cabinets     220
Three-Way Cabinets     221
Four-Way Systems     222
Powered Cabinets Pros and Cons     222
Speaker Components     223
Drivers     223
Direct Radiating Cone Speakers     223
Horn Compression Drivers     224
The Importance of Enclosures     224
Sealed Enclosures     225
Infinite Baffle     225
Acoustic Suspension     225
Bass Reflex     225
The Passive Radiator     226
Transmission Line      226
Component Alignment     226
Speaker Impedance     228
Calculating Speaker Impedance Loads     229
The Racks     231
Drive Rack     231
Dynamics     232
Compressor/Limiters     232
Equalizers     233
Real-Time Analyzers (RTA)     233
Crossovers     235
Delays     236
The Amp Rack     237
Peak Power     237
RMS Power     237
Continuous Power     237
THD (Total Harmonic Distortion)     238
IMD (Intermodulation Distortion)     238
Speaker Sensitivity     238
Power, SPL, and Sensitivity     239
Correct Power Ratings for Each Cabinet     239
Bridging a Stereo Amplifier     239
Effects Rack     241
Mic Preamplifiers     241
Dynamics     242
Compressor/Limiter     243
Expander/Gates     244
Effects     246
Equalizers     247
Music Playback Devices     247
Recording Devices     248
Patch Bays     248
Intermittent Connections      249
Loss of Signal Integrity     249
Confusion for Inexperienced Operators     249
Are They More Trouble Than They're Worth?     250
Selecting the Appropriate Connection Format     250
Quarter-Inch     250
Tiny Telephone     250
RCA     250
Types of Patch Bay Connections     250
Normalled     250
Half Normalled-Bottom     251
Half-Normalled-Top     251
Full-Normalled     251
Parallel     251
De-Normalled, Non-Normalled, or Isolated     251
What Goes into a Patch Bay     252
Mixer Outputs     252
Mixer Inputs     252
Processor Inputs and Outputs     253
Playback Device Outputs     253
Tie Lines     253
Recording Device Inputs and Outputs     253
Planning and Laying Out an Efficient Bay     254
Keeping it Neat     255
Locking Various Components     255
Lockout Devices     255
The Box with No Knobs     256
Basic Equipment Needs     247
Generic Recommendations     257
Professional Help      257
Microphones     258
Cables     258
Direct Boxes     258
Playback Devices     259
Cases     259
Small Church: Fewer Than 75 People     259
Music versus Voice Reproduction     259
Sound System Recommendation #1     259
Mixer/Amp/Processor     260
Speakers     260
Sound System Recommendation #2     260
Powered Mixers and Speakers     261
Mackie     261
Yamaha     261
JBL     262
Monitors     262
Medium Church: Between 76 and 300 People     262
Mixer     262
Speakers     264
Monitors     264
Large Church: Between 301 and 1,000 People     265
Professional Help     265
Mixer     266
Speakers     267
Monitors     267
Portable Systems     267
Mega Church: More Than 1,000 People     268
Professional Help     268
Mixer     269
Analog     269
Digital     270
Speakers     270
Monitors      270
Gymnasiums     270
Youth Group     271
Permanent System     271
Portable System     271
Evaluate Your Existing System     272
Planning for Growth     272
Growing the Plan     273
Analysis Tools     273
RTAs     273
TEF Analysis     274
Monitor Systems     275
Feedback     275
Directional Characteristic     276
Mic Polar Response     276
Monitor Connections     277
Ringing Out the System     277
The Procedure     278
The Feedback Eliminator     278
Singers Can Help     279
Sing Close to the Mic     279
Hand Over the Mic     279
Hold the Body     279
Don't Point     280
Leaning Down to the Monitor     280
More Mics Cause More Feedback Problems     280
Floor Wedges     280
Look behind the Group     280
The Angle of Ascent     281
Get Back, Jo Jo     281
The Escalation of Desires     281
To Wedge or Not to Wedge     282
Dealing with Floor Monitor Leakage     282
Side Fills     282
Small-Format Monitors     283
In-Ear Monitors     284
Headphones     284
Ear Buds     285
ButtKicker     285
Recommended In-Ear Systems     286
Aux-Based Systems     286
Channel-Based System     286
Interface with FOH     287
Direct Outputs     288
System Hub Splits     289
Splitter Snake     289
Active versus Passive Split     289
Aux Bus     290
Monitor Mixer     291
Getting Wireless     291
Characteristics of a Good Monitor Mix     291
Listen Up!     292
Systems Design and Layout     293
Mixer Placement     293
Mono     293
Stereo     294
LCR     294
Walk the Room     294
Speaker Placement     295
Front Line Boundary     295
Critical Distance     295
Coverage Pattern     296
Connecting Multiple Speakers     297
Time-Aligning Components     297
Center Cluster      298
Arrays     298
Point Source Arrays     299
Split-Point Source Arrays     299
Zone Coverage     300
Time Align     301
Keep It Neat and Simple     301
Bundles     301
Digital Snakes     302
Fine-Tuning the System     302
Ear or Gear     302
Voicing the System     303
Analysis Methods and Devices     303
The Sound Level Meter     303
The Rack-Mounted Real-Time Analyzer     304
The Software Real-Time Analyzer     306
The Inadequacy of the RTA     308
Documentation     308
Three-Ring Binders     309
Computer Documentation Files     309
Build a Documentation System with a Plan     309
Document All Connections and Settings     310
Keeping Track of Gear     310
Acoustic Considerations     311
Dealing with Acoustics     311
The Room     312
Diffusion and Absorption     312
Mode/Standing Wave/Resonance     313
Calculating the Frequency of Standing Waves in a Room     314
Axial Standing Waves      315
Tangential Standing Waves     315
Oblique Standing Waves     315
Calculating Problematic Modes     315
Consider All Opposing Surfaces     315
Red Flags     316
Flutter Echo     316
Your Location in the Room Matters     317
Everything Else in the Room Matters     318
The Rectangle     318
The Goal     318
Solutions to Acoustical Problems     318
Dimensional Proportions     318
Adjusting Angles     319
Concave Angles     319
Convex Angles     320
Treating Surfaces     320
Absorption Coefficient (Absorbers)     320
Diffusers     321
The Ceiling     321
Corners     322
The Bass Trap     322
Power Alley     323
Using Your Knowledge of Acoustics     324
New Construction     324
Miking the Group     325
Electric Guitar     325
Guitar Fundamentals     326
Tone and Timbre     326
Pickup Placement     326
Tone Controls     327
Frequency Content      328
Running Direct into the Mixer     328
Miking the Speaker     328
Mic Techniques     330
Electric Guitar Levels     330
Pickups     330
Pickup Position     331
Pickup Types     331
Single-Coil     332
Double-Coil Humbucking     332
Active Pickups     332
Equalizing the Guitar     332
Delay     333
Electronic Doubling     334
Chorus/Flanger/Phase Shifter     334
Reverberation     335
Bass Guitar     335
Direct Box/Direct In (DI)     336
Pickup Output Level     336
Plucking Styles     337
Levels for Bass     338
Compressing the Electric Bass     338
Equalization of the Bass Guitar     340
Panning the Bass     341
Drums and Percussion     342
Drum Conditioning     342
Tuning     342
Drumsticks     342
Muffling Drums     343
Hardware     343
Room Acoustics     344
Theories of Drum Miking     344
Essential Microphones      344
Mic Choices     344
Positioning the Microphones     345
Phase Interaction between Mics     345
Drum Levels     345
Isolating the Acoustic Drum Kit     346
Miking a Drum Set with One Microphone     346
Miking a Kit with Two Mics     347
Miking a Kit with Three Mics     348
Miking a Kit with Four Mics     349
Close-Mike Technique     349
Equalizing Drums     350
Kick Drum     351
Snare Drum     353
Miking Toms     354
Overhead Microphones     354
The Hi-Hat Mic     355
Gating the Drum Tracks     355
Aiming the Mics     356
Click Track     356
Effects on Drums     357
Compressing Drums     357
Panning the Drums     357
Miking Piano     358
Mic Choice and Technique     359
Stereo or Mono     361
Instrument Maintenance     361
Additional Mic Techniques     361
Piano Levels     362
Equalizing the Piano     364
Compressing the Piano     364
Reverberation      365
Miking Vocals     365
Mic Choice     365
Moving-Coil (Dynamic) Mics     366
Ribbon Mics     366
Condenser Mics     366
Mic Technique     367
Proximity Effect     367
The Timid     368
The Bold     368
The Outrageous Ham     368
The Seasoned Singer     369
Holding the Mic     369
Wind Screen     369
Hygiene     370
The Proximity Effect     370
Bass Roll-Off     371
Dynamic Range     371
Compressor/Limiter/Gate/Expander     371
Backing Vocals     372
Choir     372
Mic Choice and Technique     372
Ratio of Mics to Singers     373
Positioning Choir Mics     374
Cardioid Polar Pattern     374
Pitch, Tone, Enunciation, and Blend     375
Monitors     375
Controlling the Band     376
Monitor Content     376
Monitor Position     376
Synthesized Sounds     377
Panning the Synth     377
Equalization and Effects      377
Acoustic Guitar     377
Strings     378
Picks     378
Alternate Tunings     378
The Impact of Different Wood Configurations on Tone     379
Electric Acoustic Guitars     379
Mic Techniques     380
Dynamic Processing and the Acoustic Guitar     381
Sound Check     383
Setup Routine     383
Power On/Power Off     383
Labeling and Storage     384
Walls and Boxes     384
Build a System and Stick to It     385
Training the Crew     385
Zero the Board     386
Documentation of the Mix     386
Mark the Board     386
...and Then There's Digital     387
Decide on the Mixer Layout and Subgroupings     387
Verify Functionality of All Equipment     388
Feedback     389
Performer Sound Check     389
Ensure Functionality     389
Refine Settings     389
Perfection     390
Fine-Tune the Monitor Mix     390
The Difference between What They Want and What They Need     390
Invite the Musicians to the Board      390
Start without Monitors     390
Communication with the Performers     391
Built-in Talkback Mic     391
External Talkback Mic     391
Basic Troubleshooting     392
Creating an Excellent Mix     395
Structuring the Arrangement     395
How to Structure an Effective Band Arrangement     396
Arrangement Format 1     396
Arrangement Format 2     396
Ideally     397
Creating Size in a Small Room     398
Controlling the Mix in a Large Room     398
The Sermon     399
Intelligibility     399
Headset Microphone     399
Lavaliere Microphone     399
Lectern Microphone     400
Handheld Microphone     400
Volume     401
Compression     401
Riding the Level     401
Body Packs On or Off     402
Watch the Wireless Mic Status     403
Building the Mix     404
The Decibel Meter and the Mix     404
The Difference between Rehearsal and the Event     404
First Things First     405
Subtractive versus Additive Mixing      406
Mixing Techniques for Rhythm Section and Voice     407
Equalization: The Cumulative Effect     407
Combining EQ     407
Allocating EQ across the Audible Spectrum     408
Learning from the Recording Engineer's Bag of Tricks     408
Fitting the Puzzle Together: Consciously Combining EQ     410
Sweeping a Peak to Find a Problem     410
Basic Procedures for Building the Mix     411
Electronic Drums     411
Stock versus Custom Patches     411
Phones and the FOH     412
Equalization and Effects     413
Kick and Snare Drums     413
Pan the Cymbals for a Natural Sound     413
Acoustic Drums     414
Kick Drum     414
Sweet Spot     414
Mids     415
Highs     415
Complement Bass Guitar     415
Snare Drum     415
Toms     416
Drum Set Overheads (Live)     416
Bass Guitar     417
Mixing Guitars     417
Acoustic Guitar     417
Running Direct     418
Dynamic Control     418
EQ     418
Effects      418
Electric Guitar     418
Creating a Huge Sound     419
Mixing Keyboards     420
Piano     420
Synth and Pad Effects     421
Mixing the Lead Vocal     421
Compression     422
Expander     422
Vocal EQ     422
Simple Delay     423
Add Backing Vocals     423
Compressing the Group     423
Panning     424
Reverberation     425
Combining Wet and Dry     425
Delay     425
Mixing the Event: Focus, Focus, Focus!     425
Blending the Drums and Bass     426
Blending Electric Guitars     427
Blending Acoustic Guitars     427
Blending the Mix     427
Index     429
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  • Anonymous

    Posted November 23, 2007

    A reviewer

    Bill Gibson does a great job with the authoring of this handbook. He goes beyond the norm of writing about cables and consoles, processors and patch bays, signals and samples. Bill gets into the first and foremost tool of the technician's arsenal in doing a great job as a church sound tech. He writes about the responsibilities and the relationships the technician has in the church to those around him...God, family, worship team members, and church leadership. Later on in the book he gives a well guided tour in each and every component found in a church sound system. A must read for anyone looking to operate in a sound ministry in your church no matter how technically advanced your church is. I plan to use it to train my next group of volunteers.

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