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Ultimate Questions: Thinking about Philosophy / Edition 3
     

Ultimate Questions: Thinking about Philosophy / Edition 3

by Nils Ch. Rauhut
 

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ISBN-10: 020573197X

ISBN-13: 9780205731978

Pub. Date: 11/04/2010

Publisher: Pearson

This inexpensive and brief text examines the main problems in contemporary philosophy and uses more than 100 “Food for Thought” exercises to promote critical thinking and help students become active learners of philosophy. The book is intended for use by professors teaching a problems-oriented course, but is structured to appeal to any reader

Overview

This inexpensive and brief text examines the main problems in contemporary philosophy and uses more than 100 “Food for Thought” exercises to promote critical thinking and help students become active learners of philosophy. The book is intended for use by professors teaching a problems-oriented course, but is structured to appeal to any reader willing to explore subjects such as free will, personal identity, existence of God, and more.

Ultimate Questions explores how the timeless problems of Western philosophy are located inside our ordinary ways of thinking and being. It encourages readers to think about philosophy first-hand by using vivid and engaging examples. It also introduces readers to prominent up-to-date theories being applied to the same problems encountered by contemporary analytic philosophers. After reading this text, students will gain a better sense of how mysterious their own natures really are.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205731978
Publisher:
Pearson
Publication date:
11/04/2010
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
256
Sales rank:
55,293
Product dimensions:
5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.40(d)

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: What is Philosophy?

Making Sense of the World

The Relationship between Philosophy and Science

The Main Branches of Philosophy

CHAPTER TWO: Philosophical Tools

Logical Consistency

A Demand of Reason: Avoid Contradictions

Logical Possibility

Definitions

Lexical and Real Definitions

Challenging Definitions: Counterexamples and Thought Experiments

The Basic Structure of Arguments

Putting Arguments into Standard Form

Deductive and Inductive Argument

Evaluating Deductive Arguments: Validity and Soundness

Evaluating Deductive Arguments: Logical Form

Evaluating Inductive Arguments: Probability

CHAPTER THREE: WHAT DO WE KNOW?

What is Knowledge? .

Three Different Theories of Knowledge

Skepticism

The Case for Skepticism

Descartes’ Quest for Certainty

Empiricism.

The Case for Empiricism

Problems with Perception

The Problem of Induction

Rationalism

The Case for Rationalism

Problems for Rationalism

Final Remarks on Epistemology

CHAPTER FOUR: THE PROBLEM OF FREE WILL

Why is there a Problem with Free Will?

The Case for Hard-Determinism

Can Indeterminism save Free Will?

Compatibilism

Traditional Compatibilism

Deep-Self Compatibilism

A Fundamental Problem for Compatibilism

Libertarianism

The Case for Libertarianism

Problems for Libertarianism

Final Remarks on the Problem of Free Will

CHAPTER FIVE: THE PROBLEM OF PERSONAL IDENTITY

What is the problem?

The Persistence Question

The Illusion Theory of Personal Identity

The Case for the Illusion Theory

Problems for the Illusion Theory

The Body Theory of Personal Identity [Animalism]

The Case for the Body Theory

Problems for the Body Theory

The Soul Theory of Personal Identity

The Case for the Soul Theory

Problems for the Soul Theory .

The Memory Theory of Personal Identity

The Case for the Memory Theory

Problems for the Memory Theory

Final Remarks on Personal Identity

CHAPTER SIX: THE MIND/BODY PROBLEM

What is the Problem

Possible Solutions to the Mind/Body Problem

Substance Dualism

Arguments for Substance Dualism

Near-Death Experiences

The Conceivability Argument

Intentionality

Arguments against Substance Dualism

The Problem of Interaction

Do Dualists commit a Category Mistake?

Varieties of Physicalism

Behaviorism

Logical Behaviorism

Arguments against Logical Behaviorism

The Identity Theory .

Evidence for the Identity Theory

Arguments against the Identity Theory

Functionalism

Functional Concepts and “Stuff” Concepts

Functionalism: Mind as Software

Functionalism and Artificial Intelligence: The Turing Test

Arguments against Functionalism .

The Chinese Room Argument

Problems with Qualia

Eliminative Materialism

Final Remarks on the Mind Body Problem

CHAPTER SEVEN: DOES GOD EXIST?

God, Faith, and Reason

What do we mean by the word “God”?

Arguments in Defense of a Classical Theistic God

Arguments from Religious Experiences

Cosmological Argument

Design Arguments

The Ontological Argument

Pascal’s Wager

What is the Effect of these Arguments?

Arguments against the Existence of a Classical Theistic God

The Logical Problem of Evil

The Evidential Problem of Evil

Final Remarks on the Problem of God’s Existence

CHAPTER EIGHT: WHAT OUGHT WE TO DO?

Moral Intuitions and Moral Principles

A Fundamental Challenge: Relativism

The Case for Subjective Relativism

Problems for Subjective Relativism

The Case for Cultural Relativism

Problems for Cultural Relativism

Final Remarks on Cultural Relativism

Some Important Ethical Theories

Divine Command Theory

The Case for the Divine Command Theory

Problems for the Divine Command Theory.

Utilitarianism

The Basic Idea

Pleasure and Happiness .

Problems for Utilitarianism

Duty Based Theories

The Importance of a Good Will

Advantages of Kant’s Ethics

Problems for Kant’s Ethics

Virtue Based Theories

The Importance of Moral Character

Advantages of Virtue Ethics

Problems for Virtue Ethics

Final Remarks on the Problem of Morality

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