Umts Networks - Architecture, Mobility and Services: Umts Networks - Architecture, Mobility and Services 2e / Edition 2

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Building on the success of the first edition, UMTS Networks second edition allows readers to continue their journey through UMTS up to the latest 3GPP standardization phase, Release 5. Containing revised, updated and brand new material, it provides a comprehensive view on the UMTS network architecture and its latest developments. Accompanied by numerous illustrations, the practical approach of the book benefits from the authors’ pioneering research and training in this field. 

  • Provides a broad yet detailed overview of the latest worldwide developments in UMTS technology.
  • Includes  brand new sections on the IP Multimedia Subsystem and High Speed Downlink Packet Access according to 3GPP Release 5 specifications.
  • Contains heavily revised sections on the evolution from GSM to UMTS Multi-access, the UMTS Radio Access Network, the UMTS Core Network and services.
  • Includes updated versions on services in the UMTS environment, security in the UMTS environment and UMTS protocols.
  • Illustrates all points with cutting-edge practical examples gleaned from the authors’ research and training at the forefront of UMTS.

The illustrative, hands-on approach will appeal to operators, equipment vendors, systems designers, developers and marketing professionals who require comprehensive, practical information on the latest developments in UMTS. This second edition will also benefit students and researchers in the field of mobile networking.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470011034
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 3/25/2005
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 422
  • Product dimensions: 6.91 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 1.17 (d)

Read an Excerpt

UMTS Networks

By Heikki Kaaranen A. Ahtiainen L. Laitinen S. Naghian V. Niemi

John Wiley & Sons

Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
All right reserved.

ISBN: 0-470-01103-3

Chapter One


Ari Ahtianen, Heikki Kaaranen and Siamak Naghian

Nowadays, it is widely recognised that there are three different, implemented generations as far as mobile communication is concerned (Figure 1.1). The first generation, 1G, is the name for the analogue or semi-analogue (analogue radio path, but digital switching) mobile networks established in the mid-1980s, such as the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system and the American Mobile Phone System (AMPS). These networks offered basic services for users and the emphasis was on speech and speech-related services. 1G networks were developed with national scope only and very often the main technical requirements were agreed between the governmental telecom operator and the domestic industry without wider publication of the specifications. Due to national specifications, 1G networks were incompatible with each other and mobile communication was considered at that time to be some kind of curiosity and added value service on top of the fixed networks.

Because the need for mobile communication increased, also the need for a more global mobile communication system arose. International specification bodies started to specify what the second generation, 2G, mobile communication system should look like. The emphasis for 2G was on compatibility and international transparency; the system should be regional (e.g., European-wide) or semi-global and the users of the system should be able to access it basically anywhere within the region. From the enduser's point of view, 2G networks offered a more attractive "package" to buy; besides the traditional speech service these networks were able to provide some data services and more sophisticated supplementary services. Due to the regional nature of standardisation, the concept of globalisation did not succeed completely and there are some 2G systems available on the market. Of these, the commercial success story is the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and its adaptations: it has clearly exceeded all the expectations set, both technically and commercially.

The third generation, 3G, is expected to complete the globalisation process of mobile communication. Again, there are national and regional interests involved and difficulties can be foreseen. Anyway, the trend is that 3G will mostly be based on GSM technical solutions for two reasons: GSM technology dominates the market and the great investments made in GSM should be utilised as much as possible. Based on this, the specification bodies created a vision about how mobile telecommunication will develop within the next decade. Through this vision, some requirements for 3G were shortlisted as follows:

1. The system must be fully specified (like GSM) and major interfaces should be standardised and open. The specifications generated should be valid worldwide.

2. The system must bring clear added value to GSM in all aspects. However, at the start the system must be backward-compatible at least with GSM and ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network).

3. Multimedia and all of its components must be supported throughout the system.

4. The radio access of 3G must provide wideband capacity that is generic enough to become available worldwide. The term "wideband" was adopted to reflect the capacity requirements between 2G narrowband capacity and the broadband capacity of fixed communications media.

5. The services for end-users must be independent of radio access technology details and the network infrastructure must not limit the services to be generated. That is, the technology platform is one issue and the services using the platform are totally another issue.

While 3G specification work was still going on, the major telecommunication trends changed too. The traditional telecommunication world and up to now the separate data communications (or the Internet) have started to converge rapidly. This has started a development chain, where traditional telecommunication and Internet Protocol (IP) technologies are combined in the same package. This common trend has many names depending on the speaker's point of view; some people call the target of this development the "Mobile Information Society" or "Mobile IP", others say it is "3G All IP" and in some commercial contexts the name "E2E IP" (End-to-End IP) is used as well. From a 3G point of view, a full-scale IP implementation is defined as a single targeted phase of the 3G development path.

The 3G system experiences evolution through new phases and, actually, the work aiming to establish 4G specifications has already started. Right now it may be too early to predict where the 3G evolution ends and 4G really starts. Rather, this future development can be thought of as an ongoing development chain where 3G will continue to introduce new ways of handling and combining all kinds of data and mobility. 4G will then emerge as a more sophisticated system concept bringing still more capacity and added value to end-users.

1.1 Specification Process for 3G

The uniform GSM standard in European countries has enabled globalisation of mobile communications. This became evident when the Japanese 2G Pacific Digital Communications (PDC) failed to spread to the Far East and the open GSM standard was adopted by major parts of the Asian markets and when its variant became one of the nationally standardised alternatives for the US Personal Communication System (PCS) market too.

A common, global mobile communication system naturally creates a lot of political desires. In the case of 3G this can be seen even in the naming policy of the system. The most neutral term is "third generation", 3G. In different parts of the world different issues are emphasised and, thus, the global term 3G has regional synonyms. In Europe 3G has become UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System), following the European Telecommunications Institute (ETSI) perspective. In Japan and the US the 3G system often carries the name IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telephony 2000). This name comes from the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) development project. In the US the CDMA2000 (Code Division Multiple Access) is also an aspect of 3G cellular systems and represents the evolution from the IS-95 system. In this book, we will describe the UMTS system as it has been specified by the worldwide 3G Partnership Project (3GPP). To bring some order to the somewhat confusing naming policy, 3GPP launched a decision where it stated that the official name of 3G is the "3GPP System". This name should be followed by a release number describing the specification collection. With this logic, the very first version of the European-style UMTS network takes the official name "3GPP System Release 99". Despite this definition, the above-mentioned names UMTS and IMT-2000 are still widely used.

At the outset UMTS inherited plenty of elements and functional principles from GSM and the most considerable new development is related to the radio access part of the network. UMTS brings into the system an advanced access technology (namely, the wideband type of radio access). Wideband radio access is implemented using Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) technology. WCDMA evolved from CDMA, which, as a proven technology, has been used for military purposes and for narrowband cellular networks, especially in the US.

UMTS standardisation was preceded by several pre-standardisation research projects founded and financed by the EU. Between 1992 and 1995 a Research in Advanced Communications in Europe (RACE) MoNet project developed the modelling technique describing the function allocation between the radio access and core parts of the network. This kind of modelling technique was needed, for example, to compare Intelligent Network (IN) and GSM Mobile Application Part (MAP) protocols as mobility management solutions. This was, besides the discussion on the broadband versus narrowband ISDN, one of the main dissents in MoNet. In addition, discussions about the use of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) and B-ISDN as fixed transmission techniques arose at the end of the MoNet project.

Between 1995 and 1998 3G research activities continued within the Advanced Communications Technology and Services (ACTS) Future Radio Wideband Multiple Access System (FRAMES) project. The first years were used for selecting and developing a suitable multiple access technology, considering mainly the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) versus CDMA. The big European manufacturers preferred TDMA because it was used also in GSM. CDMA-based technology was promoted mainly by US industry, which had experience with this technology mainly due to its early utilisation in defence applications.

ITU dreamed of specifying at least one common global radio interface technology. This kind of harmonisation work was done under the name "Future Public Land Mobile Telephony System" (FPLMTS) and later IMT-2000. Due to many parallel activities in regional standardisation bodies this effort turned into a promotion of common architectural principles among the family of IMT-2000 systems.

Europe and Japan also had different short-term targets for 3G system development. In Europe a need for commercial mobile data services with guaranteed quality (e.g., mobile video services) was widely recognised after the early experiences from narrowband GSM data applications. Meanwhile, in the densely populated Far East there was an urgent demand for additional radio frequencies for speech services. The frequency bands identified by ITU in 1992 for the future 3G system called "IMT-2000" became the most obvious solution to this issue. In early 1998 a major push forward was achieved when ETSI TC-SMG decided to select WCDMA as its UMTS radio technology. This was also supported by the largest Japanese operator NTT DoCoMo. The core network technology was at the same time agreed to be developed on the basis of GSM core network technology. During 1998 the European ETSI and the Japanese standardisation bodies (TTC and ARIB) agreed to make a common UMTS standard. After this agreement, the 3GPP organisation was established and the determined UMTS standardisation was started worldwide.

From the UMTS point of view, the 3GPP organisation is a kind of "umbrella" aiming to form compromised standards by taking into account political, industrial and commercial pressures coming from the local specification bodies:

ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard Institute)/Europe.

ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Business)/Japan.

CWTS (China Wireless Telecommunication Standard group)/China.

T1 (Standardisation Committee T1-Telecommunications)/US.

TTA (Telecommunication Technology Association)/Korea.

TTC (Telecommunications Technology Committee)/Japan.

As this is a very difficult task an independent organisation called the "OHG" (Operator Harmonisation Group) was established immediately after the 3GPP was formed. The main task for 3GPP is to define and maintain UMTS specifications, while the role of OHG is to look for compromise solutions for those items the 3GPP cannot handle internally. This arrangement guarantees that 3GPP's work will proceed on schedule.

To ensure that the American viewpoint will be taken into account a separate 3GPP Number 2 (3GPP2) was founded and this organisation performs specification work from the IS-95 radio technology basis. The common goal for 3GPP, OHG and 3GPP2 is to create specifications according to which a global cellular system having wideband radio access could be implemented. To summarise, there were three different approaches towards the global cellular system, 3G. These approaches and their building blocks are, on a rough level, presented in Table 1.1.

When globality becomes a reality, the 3G specification makes it possible to take any of the switching systems mentioned in the table and combine them with any of the specified radio access parts and the result is a functioning 3G cellular network. The second row represents the European approach known as "UMTS" and this book gives an overview of its first release.

The 3GPP originally decided to prepare specifications on a yearly basis, the first specification release being Release 99. This first specification set has a relatively strong "GSM presence". From the UMTS point of view the GSM presence is very important; first, the UMTS network must be backward-compatible with existing GSM networks and, second, GSM and UMTS networks must be able to interoperate together. The next release was originally known as "3GPP R00", but, because of the multiplicity of changes proposed, specification activities were scheduled into two specification releases 3GPP R4 and 3GPP R5. 3GPP R4 defines optional changes in the UMTS core network circuit-switched side; these are related to the separation of user data flows and their control mechanisms. 3GPP R5 aims to introduce a UMTS network providing mechanisms and arrangements for multimedia. This entity is known as the "IP Multimedia Subsystem" (IMS) and its architecture is presented in Chapter 6. IP and the overlying protocols will be used in network control too and user data flows are expected to be mainly IP-based as well. In other words, the mobile network implemented according to the 3GPP R5 specification will be an end-to-end packet-switched cellular network using IP as the transport protocol instead of SS7 (Signalling System #7), which holds the major position in existing circuit-switched networks. Naturally, the IP-based network should still support circuit-switched services too. 3GPP R4/R5 will also start to utilise the possibility of new radio access techniques. In 3GPP R99 the basis for the UMTS Terrestrial Access Network (UTRAN) is WCDMA radio access. In 3GPP R4/5 another radio access technology derived from GSM with Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution (EDGE) is integrated to the system in order to create the GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) as an alternative to building a UMTS mobile network.

1.2 Introduction to the 3G Network Architecture

The main idea behind 3G is to prepare a universal infrastructure able to carry existing and also future services. The infrastructure should be designed so that technology changes and evolution can be adapted to the network without causing uncertainties in the existing services using the current network structure. Separation of access technology, transport technology, service technology (connection control) and user applications from each other can handle this very demanding requirement. The structure of a 3G network can be modelled in many ways, and here we introduce some ways to outline the basic structure of the network. The architectural approaches to be discussed in this section are:

Conceptual network model.

Structural network architecture.

Resource management architecture.

UMTS bearer architecture.

1.2.1 Conceptual Network Model

From the above-mentioned network conceptual model point of view, the entire network architecture can be divided into subsystems based on the nature of traffic, protocol structures and physical elements. As far as the nature of traffic is concerned, the 3G network consists of two main domains, packet-switched (PS) and circuit-switched (CS) domains. According to 3GPP specification TR 21.905 a domain refers to the highest level group of physical entities and the defined interfaces (reference points) between such domains. The interfaces and their definitions describe exactly how the domains communicate with each other.

From the protocol structure and their responsibility point of view, the 3G network can be divided into two strata: the access stratum and the non-access stratum. A stratum refers to the way of grouping protocols related to one aspect of the services provided by one or several domains (see 3GPP specification TR 21.905). Thus, the access stratum contains the protocols that handle activities between the User Equipment (UE) and the access network. The non-access stratum contains the protocols that handle activities between the UE and the core network (CS/PS domain), respectively. For further information about strata and protocols see Chapter 10.

The part of Figure 1.2 called "Home Network" maintains static subscription and security information. The serving network is the part of the core network+domain which provides the core network functions locally to the user. The transit network is the core network part located on the communication path between the serving network and the remote party. If, for a given call, the remote party is located inside the same network as the originating UE, then no particular instance of the transit network is needed.


Excerpted from UMTS Networks by Heikki Kaaranen A. Ahtiainen L. Laitinen S. Naghian V. Niemi Copyright © 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgements xv


1 Introduction 3

1.1 Specification Process for 3G 5

1.2 Introduction to the 3G Network Architecture 8

1.2.1 Conceptual Network Model 8

1.2.2 Structural Network Architecture 9

1.2.3 Resource Management Architecture 11

1.2.4 Bearer Architecture 13

2 Evolution from GSM to UMTS Multi-access 15

2.1 From Analogue to Digital 16

2.2 From Digital to Reachability 18

2.3 Jump to Packet World and Higher Speeds 19

2.4 3GPP Release 99 21

2.5 3GPP Release 4 24

2.6 3GPP Release 5 25

2.7 Trends beyond 3GPP Release 5 26


3 The Key Challenges Facing the Mobile Network Architecture 31

3.1 Radio Communication Constraints 31

3.2 Cellular Radio Communication Principles 36

3.3 Multi-access Techniques 39

3.4 Device Mobility 44

3.5 Network Transport 45

3.6 Transport Alternatives for UMTS 46

3.6.1 Asynchronous Transfer Mode in UMTS 48

3.6.2 IPTran sport 49

3.7 Network Management 51

3.7.1 High-level Architecture of a Network Management System 51

3.8 Spectrum and Regulatory 53

3.8.1 UMTS Spectrum Allocation 56

4 Overview of UMTS Radio Access Technologies 59

4.1 WCDMA Essentials 59

4.1.1 Basic Concepts 60

4.1.2 WCDMA Radio Channels 65

4.1.3 WCDMA Frame Structure 72

4.2 WCDMA Enhancement—HSDPA 75

4.2.1 Introduction 75

4.2.2 The Benefits and Impacts 76

4.2.3 Basic Concept 78

4.2.4 Adaptive Modulation and Coding 78

4.2.5 Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request 80

4.2.6 Fast Scheduling 80

4.2.7 Seamless Cell Change 81

4.2.8 Basic Operation and Architectural Considerations 81

4.3 GSM/EDGE 83

4.3.1 Basic Concepts 83

4.3.2 Radio Channels and Frame Structures 85

4.3.3 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) 89

4.3.4 Enhanced Data Rates for Global/GSM Evolution (EDGE) 91

4.4 WLAN Technology 93

4.4.1 Physical Technology 93

4.4.2 Medium Access Control 94

4.4.3 Network Formation 97

5 UMTS Radio Access Network 99

5.1 UTRAN Architecture 100

5.2 Base Station (BS, Node B) 101

5.2.1 Base Station Structure 101

5.2.2 Modulation Method 103

5.2.3 Receiver Technique 106

5.2.4 Cell Capacity 108

5.2.5 Control Functions in BS 110

5.3 Radio Network Controller (RNC) 110

5.3.1 Radio Resource Management (RRM) 112

5.3.2 UTRAN Control Functions 134

6 UMTS Core Network 143

6.1 UMTS Core Network Architecture 145

6.1.1 Core Network Entities that Are Common to All Domains and Subsystems 146

6.1.2 CS Domain 148

6.1.3 PS Domain 150

6.2 CN Management Tasks and Control Duties 152

6.2.1 Mobility Management (MM) 153

6.2.2 Communication Management (CM) 167

6.3 Charging, Billing and Accounting 173

6.3.1 Charging and Accounting 173

6.3.2 Billing 176

6.4 IPMu ltimedia Subsystem (IMS) 180

6.5 IPMu ltimedia Subsystem Fundamentals 181

6.6 IMS Entities and Functionalities 185

6.6.1 Call Session Control Functions (CSCFs) 185

6.6.2 Databases 188

6.6.3 Interworking Functions 189

6.6.4 Service-related Functions 190

6.6.5 Support Functions 191

6.6.6 Charging Functions 193

7 The UMTS Terminal 195

7.1 Terminal Architecture 195

7.2 Differentiation of Terminals 199

7.3 Terminal Capabilities 203

7.4 UMTS Subscription 203

7.5 User Interface 205

8 Services in the UMTS Environment 207

8.1 About Services in General 207

8.1.1 What Do Users Really Want? 208

8.1.2 How Can We Make Money out of This? 209

8.1.3 What Are the Most Adequate Design Principles in a Complex System? 210

8.1.4 Do Service-related Facts in Mobile Networks Differ from Those in Fixed Networks? 211

8.2 Quality of Service (QoS) 211

8.2.1 Traffic Classes and QoS Attributes 211

8.2.2 About QoS Mechanisms 216

8.2.3 ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) 217

8.2.4 Differentiated Services (DiffServ) 218

8.2.5 Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) 219

8.3 About Service Subsystems 221

8.3.1 Services Inherited from the GSM 221

8.3.2 UMTS SIM Application Toolkit (USAT) 223

8.3.3 Browsing Facilities 224

8.3.4 Location Communication Services (LCS) 226

8.3.5 IMS Service Mechanism—Messaging 248

8.3.6 IMS Service Mechanism—Presence 249

8.4 Conclusions 251

9 Security in the UMTS Environment 253

9.1 Access Security in UMTS 254

9.1.1 Legacy from 2G 255

9.1.2 Mutual Authentication 256

9.1.3 Cryptography for Authentication 258

9.1.4 Temporary Identities 261

9.1.5 UTRAN Encryption 262

9.1.6 Integrity Protection of Radio Resource Control (RRC) Signalling 264

9.1.7 Summary of Access Security 266

9.2 Additional Security Features in 3GPP R99 266

9.2.1 Ciphering Indicator 266

9.2.2 Identification of the UE 266

9.2.3 Security for Location Services (LCSs) 268

9.2.4 User-to-USIM Authentication 268

9.2.5 Security in Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) Application Toolkit 268

9.3 Security Aspects at the System and Network Level 268

9.3.1 Typical Security Attacks 269

9.3.2 Overview of 3GPP Network Domain Security 271

9.3.3 IPSecu rity (IPSec) 271

9.3.4 MAPSec 274

9.4 Protection of Applications and Services 274

9.4.1 IPMu ltimedia CN Subsystem (IMS) Security 275

9.4.2 Examples of Application-layer Security Mechanisms 279

9.4.3 Security for Session Layer 279

9.4.4 AAA Mechanisms 280

9.5 Lawful Interception 280


10 UMTS Protocols 287

10.1 Protocol Reference Architectures at 3GPP 287

10.1.1 The Radio Interface Protocol Reference Model 287

10.1.2 UTRAN Protocol Reference Model 289

10.1.3 The CN Protocol Reference Model 291

10.2 UMTS Protocol Interworking Architecture 294

10.3 Transport Network Protocols 297

10.3.1 Transport Network Protocol Architecture 297

10.3.2 WCDMA Physical Layer in the Uu Interface 299

10.3.3 Backbone Networking in Other Interfaces 300

10.3.4 UMTS Transport Network Protocols 308

10.4 Radio Network Protocols 318

10.4.1 Radio Network Control Plane 318

10.4.2 Radio Network User Plane 326

10.5 System Network Protocols 330

10.5.1 Non-Access Stratum Protocols 330

10.5.2 Control Plane between CN Nodes 339

10.5.3 The User Plane in the System Network 341

10.6 Summary of UMTS Network Protocols 341

10.7 Overview of IMS Protocols 345

11 Procedure Examples 351

11.1 Elementary Procedures 351

11.1.1 Paging 353

11.1.2 RRC Connection Set-up 354

11.1.3 Transaction Reasoning 356

11.1.4 Authentication and Security Control 357

11.1.5 Transaction Set-up with Radio Access Bearer (RAB) Allocation 358

11.1.6 Transaction 360

11.1.7 Transaction Clearing and RAB Release 360

11.1.8 RRC Connection Release 364

11.2 RRM Procedure Examples 364

11.2.1 Soft Handover—Link Addition and Link Deletion 364

11.2.2 SRNS Relocation—Circuit Switched 367

11.2.3 Inter-System Handover from UMTS to GSM—Circuit Switched 369

11.3 MM Procedure Examples 371

11.3.1 Cell Update 371

11.3.2 URA Update 373

11.3.3 Location Update to the CN CS Domain 373

11.3.4 Routing Area Update to the CN PS Domain 374

11.4 CC Procedure Example 376

11.5 Packet Data Example 378

11.6 IMS Examples 379

11.6.1 IMS Registration Example 380

11.6.2 IMS Session Example 383

List of Abbreviations 387

Bibliography 399

Index 401

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