Unarmed Against Hitler

Overview

Resistance in German-occupied Europe is generally understood as insurrectional violence. However, as soon as the war broke out, thousands of people engaged in civil disobedience—-manifested through strikes, demonstrations, and the activities of medical organizations, courts of law, and churches. Jacques Semelin gathers evidence for the untold story of a movement that took place in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, and Denmark as well as Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Germany itself. A widespread ...

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Overview

Resistance in German-occupied Europe is generally understood as insurrectional violence. However, as soon as the war broke out, thousands of people engaged in civil disobedience—-manifested through strikes, demonstrations, and the activities of medical organizations, courts of law, and churches. Jacques Semelin gathers evidence for the untold story of a movement that took place in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, and Denmark as well as Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Germany itself. A widespread campaign contested authority and paved the way for later armed resistance and the eventual defeat of the Nazis.

This study goes beyond historical interest. It is ethical in scope and deals with civilian strategy at large. To what extent is society prepared to face aggression, whether external or internal? As such, it is of value not only to military historians and other students of World War II, but it provides thoughtful approaches for political scientists and others concerned with contemporary issues of violence and civil disobedience.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780275939601
  • Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 6/21/1993
  • Pages: 214
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Meet the Author

JACQUES SEMELIN is a historian and political science researcher at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments
Foreword
Introduction: A New Look at the "Resistance" 1
1 The Main Traits of the Nazi Occupation in Europe 5
Fundamental Objectives 6
Principal Forms of Domination 8
Political Expressions of Collaboration 11
Reasons for State Collaboration: A Comparison between Denmark and France 14
2 Which Resistance? 23
Which History of the Resistance? 25
The Field of Civilian Resistance 27
3 The Complexities of Noncooperation 33
The Complexity of Behaviors Toward the Occupying Forces 34
The Progressive Radicalization of Relations between the Occupying Forces and the Occupied Population 39
4 The Question of Legitimacy 47
Norway's Steadfastness 50
France's Alienation 54
The Netherlands' Contradictions 57
Two Political Rationales for Resistance 60
5 Elements of Social Cohesion 63
Internal Factors 65
External Factors 77
Laws of Reactivity 84
6 The Role of Opinion 89
From Opinion to Resistance 91
The Public Expression of Resisting Opinion 95
The Political Walls of Civil Society 105
The Theory of the Three Circles 106
7 Civilian Resistance Against Repression 111
Provoked Repression 112
Restrained Repression 117
Other Factors of Vulnerability 122
8 Civilian Resistance to the Genocide 129
The Strategy of Victimization 131
The Screen of State 137
The Screen of Opinion 141
The Screen of Social Networks 148
The Terminal Stage of Cancer 154
Can Genocide Be Prevented? 156
9 Which Role for Which Results? 161
Surviving in an Independent Society 162
Direct, Indirect, and Dissuasive Effectiveness 168
Conclusion: The New Field of Civilian-Based Defense Strategies 177
Appendix: Elements of Methodology 185
List of Examples Studied 189
Index 191
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