Underground: My Life with SDS and the Weathermen

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Overview

In 1968, Mark Rudd led the legendary occupation of five buildings at Columbia University, a dramatic act of protest against the university's support for the Vietnam War and its institutional racism. The charismatic chairman of the Columbia chapter of Students for a Democratic Society—the largest radical student organization in the United States—Rudd went on to become a national symbol of student revolt, and co-founded the Weathermen faction of SDS, which helped organize the notorious Days of Rage in Chicago in 1969.

But Mark Rudd wanted revolution, seeking to end war, racism, and injustice by any means necessary—even violence. By the end of 1970, he was one of the FBI's Most Wanted—and after a string of nonlethal bombings, he went into hiding for more than seven years before turning himself in to great media fanfare.

In this gripping narrative, Rudd speaks out about this tumultuous period, the role he played in its crucial events, and its aftermath.

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Editorial Reviews

truthdig
“An important contribution to a growing collection of narratives from former participants in the revolutionary 1960s’ underground....deeply disturbing, though illuminating, in its unemotional matter-of-factness.”
James Rosen
Even those who condemn Rudd's work in history can be grateful for Rudd's work of history. Underground is honest and funny, passionate and contrite, meticulously researched and deeply philosophical: an essential document on the '60s. While the author hasn't resolved all the contradictions inherent in his old urban-guerrilla guise, he confronts them admirably, ready to acknowledge the worst in himself.
—The Washington Post
Library Journal

Rudd, a leader of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) during the Columbia University student strike of 1968 and subsequently of its offshoot, the Weathermen, adds to the spate of recent memoirs by former radicals of the era (e.g., David Barber's A Hard Rain Fell). Rudd's book captures the anger and despair his generation felt regarding the war, paternalistic universities, and a system that exempted white students from the draft while feeding the poor and minorities into the meat grinder of war. Rudd describes the tensions between white radicals and black students struggling for rights and respect, and he reflects on the movement's sexism, confessing that as a radical media star he slept with female groupies and was surprised when women rejected their role as foot soldiers, stenographers, and sex objects. SDS's descent from student rebellion to make-believe guerrilla war has been chronicled before. But Rudd's account stands with the best of these works, deftly describing the banality of life inside the movement. Now teaching in New Mexico, Rudd retains his idealism and rebellious spirit but sees positive action and community building as the true path forward. This one's a good read.
—Duncan Stewart

Kirkus Reviews
Provocative memoir by the antiwar activist best known for his role in the Columbia University occupation of 1968. Rudd was a nice boy from New Jersey when he came to Columbia, but the war in Vietnam was raging and racial tensions were wound extremely tight. His trajectory was quick: He became an activist in and then leader of Students for a Democratic Society, whose sit-in strike and occupation of several university buildings were front-page news around the world-and proved to be ineluctably divisive. "Things were happening so fast by that point that I only dimly understood we had passed the point of no return," Rudd writes of the occupation. That describes subsequent events too, including the increasing radicalization of SDS and its splintering to form, among other groups, the Weather Underground, committed to violent revolution. Once in, the Weathermen found, it was hard to get out; Rudd was reminded that "anyone who pulled out of the action would have to be ‘offed' for the sake of security." Around the time that a few unlucky Weathermen blew up themselves and a Greenwich Village townhouse while making bombs, Rudd went underground, fleeing various criminal charges, living as close to an anonymous life as possible, working factory and construction jobs, trying to keep a low profile and always fearing that he would be discovered. The author, who finally surrendered to authorities only to find most of the charges against him had gone cold or were dismissed by illegal government actions, made a life as a math teacher far from New York. Wistfully regretful about excesses and missteps, Rudd nonetheless insists, "I might have been wrong about a lot of things, but I'd been right in opposing thewar and about the antiwar movement, which had played an important role in ending it."If you thought the right wing was in a lather over Bill Ayres, wait until its talking heads get hold of this unapologetic book, which deserves to be read and discussed.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780061472763
  • Publisher: HarperCollins Publishers
  • Publication date: 3/23/2010
  • Pages: 324
  • Sales rank: 501,966
  • Product dimensions: 5.30 (w) x 7.90 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Mark Rudd is now a teacher in New Mexico, where he lives with his family.

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Read an Excerpt

Underground

Chapter One

A Good German

My mother tells this story about dropping me off at the dorm at West 114th Street and Broadway on the first day of Freshman Week. She and my father and I were unloading the car when a kid came up to me and handed me a blue and white beanie, the official headgear of the Columbia College freshman. He said, "We have to wear it all week."

I replied, "That's stupid, I'm not gonna wear that thing!"

Bertha, my mother, looked at Jake, my father, and said quietly, "We're in for trouble."

Actually, my mother had it wrong about my refusal to wear the beanie. It wasn't instinctive rebelliousness; I just didn't want to act like a kid. I had dreamed of this moment throughout my childhood in suburban New Jersey, longing to go off to college and finally not have to pretend to be a child. I'd always felt like a misfit with other kids. Play didn't interest me: I liked to read—history, biography, science, novels—and to work, to chop firewood, to build things. At last I had escaped the loneliness and shame of childhood, and I didn't want this, my coming-of-age moment—my true bar mitzvah, the day I was supposed to become a man—ruined by anything so juvenile as a stupid beanie.

I spent those first months at Columbia roaming the campus and glorying in the great classical brick-and-limestone-faced buildings, the columned libraries, even the herringbone-patterned brick sidewalks. I was awestruck to be part of this mighty international university.

Columbia was built upon one of the highest points in Manhattan, first called Harlem Heights and laterMorningside Heights. An early battle of the Revolutionary War, in which the Americans finally proved themselves, had taken place here. Morningside Heights looked out over Harlem, a vast valley of apartment buildings, mostly walk-up tenements, extending miles to the east and north, at the time the largest black ghetto in the United States. Columbia University was the crown set atop the Heights. At the loftiest point on the campus, the central visual focus, loomed the monumental Low Library, the seat of the university's administration, immodestly modeled after the Roman Pantheon, its enormous columns and huge rotunda the symbol of imperial power. All this was mine now.

A few times a week, I would go to class wearing a blue blazer, the official uniform of Columbia College men. Deans held afternoon socials with the students, during which we sat around drinking sherry from crystal goblets. Yes, that was me, a Jewish pisher from the New Jersey suburbs, in a leather armchair, sipping sherry and chatting with a WASP assistant dean about Plato in an oak-paneled lounge like no other room I'd ever been in. Of course I'd never tasted sherry either.

But something gradually began to feel wrong. I'd be sitting in my freshman English class, learning to analyze nineteenth-century British poetry, and suddenly I would be overcome by a wave of despair. Confused questions would pop into my mind: Why am I here, scrunched into a tiny wooden desk in this overheated classroom, pretending to be interested in poetry? Who are these boys sitting next to me in their blue blazers, regimental ties, and pressed slacks? And I also wondered like many an eighteen-year-old guy, why can't I sleep with every girl I meet?

I wandered into the Columbia College Counseling Ser-vice, looking for help. When the counselor asked what was wrong, I told him I was having trouble studying and paying attention in class. "Ah, Freshman Identity Crisis," he said, probably having heard the same story six times that day. I hadn't known there was a name for what I was going through. He asked about my sex life. I said I was depressed about Liliana, my high-school girlfriend who was now at Sarah Lawrence College. I loved her and wanted to stay with her but also wanted to sleep with other women.

He was paying attention now. "So you are having sexual problems," the counselor said. "You would most certainly benefit from analysis."

I thought about this. I had read Freud in high school, and his method had intrigued me: interpretation of dreams, the tripartite personality structure, the whole schmear about the unconscious. Psychoanalysis was the intellectual, even bohemian thing to do in New York City in the forties, fifties, and sixties. It was European. On the other hand, no one in my family had ever been to a shrink, and I wasn't sure I wanted to be the first.

The counselor was way ahead of me. "Are you receiving financial aid to attend Columbia?" he asked.

"No, my parents are paying the whole tuition."

His eyes lit up. "I'd like to refer you to Dr. Robert Liebert, a psychiatrist on our staff. He also sees patients privately."

I spent the Christmas vacation moping around my empty dorm, alone, depressed, not wanting to go home to Maplewood for more than an obligatory half-day visit. When I finally did, I screwed up my courage and told my folks I wanted to see a psychiatrist.

They were stunned. "Only crazy people need psychiatrists," my mother said. "You're not crazy, you've just been reading too many depressing books. I told you not to read that Dostoyevsky and that meshuggener Kafka when you were fifteen." It didn't take me too long to prevail, however, and my parents, ever indulgent, agreed to pay for the psychiatrist, who was not cheap. Two visits per week, at ninety dollars per visit—a lot of money today, but a fortune in 1965.

Dr. Liebert's office was on East Eighty-seventh Street, in a high-rise with a doorman. He was a soft-spoken, balding man in his mid-thirties, calm, deliberative, obviously an intellectual. I enjoyed going to his office, sitting on the expensive leather couch, talking about my dreams and the events of my life. I was an enthusiastic patient, at least at first. Within days, maybe minutes, maybe even before he had met me, Dr. Liebert developed a theory about my character development's having been distorted by my "domineering [read Jewish?] mother" and my "distracted, absent father" who worked all the time. His analysis came straight out of the New York City Freudian casebook. The therapeutic method, I deduced, was to "transfer" my feelings about my father onto Dr. Liebert.

Underground. Copyright © by Mark Rudd. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. Available now wherever books are sold.
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