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Overview

Vivid examples, thought-provoking activities—get engaged in OB.

George/Jones uses real-world examples, thought- and discussion-provoking learning activities to help readers become more engaged in what they are learning. This text also provides the most contemporary and up-to-date account of the changing issues involved in managing people in organizations.

The sixth edition features new cases, material addressing the economic crisis, and expanded coverage of ethics and workplace diversity.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A colorful introductory textbook on organizational behavior that integrates concepts, theories, and research findings to examine individuals in organizations, groups and organizational processes, and intergroup relations and the organizational context. Case studies illuminate concepts and provide managerial implications. There is a diversity of heuristic features, some integrated into the text and some at the end of each chapter or part. An extensive teaching package is available. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780136124436
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 1/14/2011
  • Series: MyManagementLab Series
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 672
  • Sales rank: 255,861
  • Product dimensions: 8.60 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Read an Excerpt

Preface

The challenges of understanding and managing organizational behavior have become greater as the result of the information technology revolution and the globalization of business. The challenges have also become greater because organizational behavior scholars and researchers are developing new and improved theories and models that explain why and how people and groups behave as they do. Concepts like personality, trust, creativity, affect, moods, emotions, virtual teams, telecommuting, and knowledge management are now found in all the central research areas of organizational behavior such as learning, motivation, leadership, group behavior and communication. Our challenge in revising Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior has been to put both these sides of the coin together. First, to summarize the most important elements of this new knowledge and provide a thorough and contemporary account of organizational behavior (OB). Second, to convey this information to students in a readable and applied form so they can understand and enjoy it. Nowhere is this clearer than in our increased attention to the effects of information technology in the third edition.

Recognizing the sweeping changes that new information technology (IT) is currently having on people and tasks inside organizations, we make IT a major contemporary theme in the new edition. Through new text material and rich examples in opening cases and chapter insights we show dramatically how most aspects of OB are being impacted by computer-based linking and coordinating systems both inside (by the intranet) and outside (by the Internet) organizations. The use of IT atall levels and in all parts of the organization has changed the nature of the jobs and work employees perform, and allowed people to work more efficiently and effectively. IT encompass a broad array of communication media including voice mail, e-mail, voice conferencing, video-conferencing, the Internet, groupware and corporate intranets, cell phones, fax machines, personal digital assistants, intelligent agents, and so on. Chapter by chapter we examine many of the specific ways in which IT impacts people, their roles and jobs, and the organization as a whole. We discuss the many profound ways IT is impacting organizational behavior including:

  • Using IT to enhance creativity and learning.
  • Effects of IT on job satisfaction, why dot-com companies are attractive to employees and problems traditional companies have had in recruiting and retaining employees.
  • Using automated (i.e., computerized) hiring programs to mitigate the effects of stereotyping and discrimination against employees and to crack down on e-mail harassment.
  • Using IT and the Internet to recruit and train employees.
  • Organizational learning and knowledge management through IT.
  • Using IT to develop new ways to attract, motivate, and retain talented employees.
  • Work-life linkages through such mechanisms as telecommuting.

We have also continued to strive to ensure that our book (1) is comprehensive, integrated, and makes important theories accessible and interesting to students; (2) is current, up-to-date, and contains expanded coverage of issues of contemporary significance such as ethics, diversity, and global management; and (3) uses rich, real-life examples of people and organizations to bring key concepts to life and provide clear managerial implications; (4) is experiential and applied. Our end-of-chapter experiential exercises contained in the Organizational Behavior in Action section give students the opportunity to catch the excitement of organizational behavior as a fluid, many-faceted discipline with multiple levels of analysis.

COMPREHENSIVE AND INTEGRATED COVERAGE

Most of the chapters of our book have been significantly revised to incorporate the most recent theoretical advances in organizational behavior into our book. Also, we have changed almost all of our opening and closing cases and insight boxes to build upon the contemporary themes that characterize coverage in our book. However, we have been careful to organize the material in an integrated way so that each part of the book builds on the previous parts, and inside each part, each chapter builds on the material in earlier chapters in a clear and logical fashion. In this way, students develop an integrated and cohesive understanding of organizational behavior. The comprehensive and integrated coverage in Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior includes the following highlights:

  • The book opens with an account of organizational behavior in Chapter 1 that demonstrates its real-world relevance and that outlines the key challenges managers face in today's global environment—managing information technology, diversity, ethics, competitive advantage, and global issues. New issues include using information technologies to increase employee creativity and organizational learning.
  • An up-to-date treatment of personality and ability and their implications for modern organizations is provided in Chapter 2, with detailed coverage of the Big Five Model of Personality. Expanded coverage is presented of emotional intelligence, creativity, openness to experience, and sources of entrepreneurship, the link between emotional intelligence and leadership; and training requirements posed by IT.
  • In Chapter 3, we present a model that explains clearly to students the relationship between work values, attitudes, and moods and their implications for such organizational behaviors as citizenship behavior. Two types of organizational commitment—affective commitment and continuance commitment—are identified and we examine the determinants and potential consequence of affective commitment. New to this edition is an updated and expanded discussion of work moods and a discussion of trust.
  • In Chapter 4, we use a unique approach in examining diversity from the perspective of perception and attribution-fundamental individual processes that operate in every organization. New to this edition is expanded coverage of sexual harassment and ways to combat it, and discussion of physically challenged workers.
  • Chapter 5 has extensive coverage of recent approaches to learning such as vicarious learning, self-control, and self-efficacy. New to this edition is expanded discussion of organizational learning, the learning organization, and the effects of knowledge management on organizational learning.
  • Three chapters on motivation (Chapters 6, 7, and 8). We offer an integrated approach to understanding work motivation, one of the most important challenges in organizational behavior. First, we present the overall model of motivation and then explain how the different theories of motivation are related and complementary and offer an in-depth treatment of procedural justice theory. Then, building on basic theories of motivation, we discuss job design, goal setting, performance appraisal, pay, and careers as motivation tools. The inclusion of social information processing theory and a discussion of the limits to goal setting are developed here as is our analysis of ethical career management, career management that supports diversity, and career management in an era of dual-career couples, contingent workers and 360-degree performance appraisals. Also discussed is how high-tech companies are using innovative outcomes to attract, motivate, and retain talented employees. New to this edition is discussion of scientific management in "new" kinds of organizations like Internet companies and how the use of stock-options at high-tech companies have prompted other more traditional organizations to increase their use of merit pay.
  • Chapter 9 on stress and work-life linkages contains new discussion of effects of information technology on workplace stress; also how working in cross-cultural teams can be stressful, but why it is important to work through misunderstandings and potential conflicts because of the advantages these teams bring. Also, there is a major new section on telecommuting including recent research findings.
  • Two chapters (Chapters 10 and 11) set forth an integrated coverage of groups as the basic building blocks of organizations. After describing the nature of work groups and the ways in which groups control their members, we focus on what makes for effective work groups in organizations. The discussion of process losses and gains, social loafing, and important types of groups such as the top management team, self-managed work teams, and R&D teams are innovations. New to this edition is material on how office design can be used to capture advantages of social facilitation and allow for teamwork while also giving workers private work space. Also we include a new discussion of conformity and national culture with examples of high conformity in Japan. Finally, a new section on virtual teams reflects the information technology theme.
  • Chapter 12 contains a new discussion of research on and new material on leadership and emotional intelligence and recent research on gender and punishment.
  • Chapter 13 contains a new discussion of information available over the Internet, such as domestic and global email, ethics of surfing the Web at work, a discussion of electronic trails, information technology, and information overload. It also includes a discussion of the paperless office and the effects of increased use of electronic communication.
  • At the intergroup and organizational level of analysis we ,provide a two-chapter (Chapters 15 and 16) integrated treatment of organizational design, organizational structure, and organizational culture. After discussing the basic building blocks of organizational structure and culture, we provide an up-to-date account of the three most important factors affecting the design of structure and culture: the organization's environment, strategy, and technology. This discussion includes coverage of cross-functional team structures and ethical cultures. Innovative use of a Web-based intranet to speed product development and improve coordination between subunits and new information about the way IT affects organizational structure is integrated throughout the chapter such as decentralization and integration and the idea of the boundaryless and virtual organization.
  • In addition to the extensive global material integrated throughout the whole text a whole chapter (Chapter 17) examines all aspects of managing global organizations. We want students to see how differences in attitudes, values, ethics, and ways of doing business in different countries present many challenges for managers. Coverage of cross-cultural differences in communication and understanding of linguistic styles is presented in Chapter 13. New to this edition is coverage of global video-teleconferencing, using IT to facilitate global communication, and effects of cross-cultural differences on the transfer of information.
  • The last chapter of the book (Chapter 19) continues to provide what we believe to be the most current treatment of organizational change in any organizational behavior textbook on the market. This chapter we offer an in-depth treatment of restructuring, reengineering, total quality management, and other approaches to increasing organizational effectiveness in today's increasingly competitive global environment. New to this edition is a discussion of e-engineering and of the effects of information systems on organizational roles and tasks.

EXTENSIVE LEARNING PACKAGE

We believe that no other organizational behavior textbook has the sheer range of learning features for students that our book has. These features—some integrated into the text and some at the end of each chapter or part—ease the student's way through the study of organizational behavior. All in all, these features were crafted so that instructors could actively involve their students in the chapter material. They provide an interactive approach to teaching organizational behavior that helps students understand and appreciate the complexity of the challenges facing managers and workers in today's business environment.

Opening Curse
The student enters the chapter via an in-depth, real-world example of people and organizations that focuses attention on the upcoming chapter issues.

Running Glossary
To address the abundance of terminology that an introductory student needs to assimilate, we have included a running glossary that provides a definition for every key term in the book.

Advice to Managers
In each chapter, we have included two or more managerial summaries called "Advice to Managers," where the practical implications of key organizational behavior theories and concepts are clearly outlined. These take-home lessons extend the chapter material into the realm of application in ways that students can actually use when they enter the workplace.

Insight Boxes
Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior reflects all the current and pressing concerns facing organizations and their managers and workers today. We have created interesting real-world examples geared to the subject matter of the chapter to engage the student and to bring these concerns to life. These "Insights" are not mere summaries of academic studies or contrived situations, but are stories from the frontline of today's businesses. They are different from similar features in most other textbooks in that they are directly integrated into the text material to highlight and illustrate the most significant points. We have deliberately set up these features this way because our experience has shown that students are more likely to read material that is seamlessly woven into the fabric of the chapter rather than set apart.

Organizational Behavior in Action
The sections entitled "Organizational Behavior in Action" are found at the end of each chapter and include a wide range of activities to help students build the skills they will need as future managers and workers. We have carefully developed the features within these modules with both large and small classes in mind, as well as individual and group assignments. Our overriding goal is to help students appreciate that there are no absolute answers to organizational behavior issues and that they must instead learn how to analyze particular situations, compare alternative courses of action, and generate options for solution.

Building Diagnostic Skills
This experiential feature engages students by challenging them to explore, analyze, and diagnose actual organizational behavior, based on what they have just learned in the chapter. This exercise draws on students' own experience base to apply theories diagnostically to real situations from their own lives and to organizations and companies that they select.

Research on the Internet: A Manager's Tool
Each chapter also contains two Internet exercises that students can use to do research on the Internet. One is specific, and asks students to complete a particular assignment; one is general and asks them to do their own research.

Topics for Debate
This experiential feature is cast in a debate format and asks students to develop their own arguments as they examine chapter content from two different perspectives. Our experience has shown that debates, rebuttals, and questions from the audience fire up students' involvement and imagination and spark a high level of class participation.

Experiential Exercise
In this group-based exercise, students divide into groups to explore together the chapter material by focusing on a practical OB task, problem, or issue. Students must use all their knowledge and experience and work in a group situation—a dynamic they are sure to encounter in the workplace—to complete the assignment. These exercises are original and have been class-tested by the authors.

Making the Connection
Students collect real-world examples of people and organizations from newspapers like The Wall Street Journal and magazines like Fortune and Business Week to answer questions related to the chapter material. This feature represents a more advanced assignment that works especially well when the instructor requires students to subscribe to key business publications. The goal is to develop critical thinking tools in students and to help them apply OB principles to business organizations in the news.

Closing Case
Each chapter also contains a closing case that can be used to stimulate class discussion of the chapter content.

TEACHING PACKAGE

The following supplements accompany the third edition:

  • Instructor's Manual. The Instructor's Manual offers detailed chapter outlines and lecture support as well as additional applications, revised teaching suggestions, and tips on integrating media.
  • Test Item File. Each chapter of the Test Item File includes true/false, multiple-choice, and essay questions. Together, the questions cover the content of each chapter in a variety of ways providing flexibility in testing the students' knowledge of the text.
  • Instructor's Resource CD-ROM. This Windows-based CD-ROM contains the computerized Test Bank, PowerPoint slides, and Instructor's Manual. A revised comprehensive package of text outlines and figures corresponding to the text, the PowerPoint transparencies are designed to aid the educator and supplement in-class lectures. Test Manager, containing all of the questions printed in the Test Item File, is a comprehensive suite of tools for testing and assessment. Test Manager allows educators to create and distribute tests for their courses easily, either by printing and distributing through traditional methods or by on-line delivery via a Local Area Network (LAN) server.
  • On Location! Video. A collection of new part-ending video segments is available to qualified adopters. These segments focus on the technology company Studentadvantage.com, and cover key topics in the chapters including information technology, organizational structure, and motivation.
  • Standard Web CT-Free to adopters. Standard Web CT, an online course from Prentice Hall, features Companion Web Site and Test Item File Content in an easy-to-use system. Developed by educators for educators and their students, this online content and tools feature the most advanced educational technology and instructional design available today. The rich set of materials, communication tools, and course management resources can be easily customized to either enhance a traditional course or create the entire course online. Courses are also available in Standard Blackboard and Course Compass.
  • myPHLIP Web Site. The new myPHLIP provides professors with a customized course Web site including net communication tools, one-click navigation of chapter content, and great PHLIP resources such as current events and Internet exercises.
  • Prentice Hall Self-Assessment Library Version 2.0. This revised Prentice Hall Self-Assessment Library CD-ROM includes several new self-assessment exercises organized by group, individual, and organization. Results are scored and evaluated electronically. This CD-ROM, also offered in print and now online, is available at a small additional cost when ordered with the text. Please see your Prentice Hall sales representative for details.
  • PH Guide to e- Commerce and e-Business for Management. Free with any PH text, this guide introduces students to many aspects of e-business and the Internet, providing tips on searching out information, looking for jobs, continuing education, and using the Internet in Management courses.
  • Mastering Management from the Mastering Business Series. The multimedia tool that means business. Mastering Business is a technologically innovative CD-ROM that uses video and interactive exercises to engage students actively in learning core business concepts across core business disciplines. For more information, pricing, or to request a Mastering Business demo CD-ROM, please contact your local sales representative.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Finding a way to coordinate and integrate the rich and diverse organizational behavior literature is no easy task. Neither is it easy to present the material in a way that students can easily understand and enjoy, given the plethora of concepts, theories, and research findings. In writing Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior, we were fortunate to have had the assistance of several people who contributed greatly to the book's final form. We are grateful to David Shafer and Jennifer Glennon, for providing us with timely feedback and information from professors and reviewers that have allowed us to shape the book to meet the needs of its intended market and to Judy Leale and Kim Marsden for ably coordinating the book's progress. Additionally, we want to thank Michele Foresta for her hard work on the supplements that accompany this book. We also thank Elaine Morris of Rice University for her secretarial and word-processing support, and Patsy Hartmangruber at Texas A & M.

We are grateful to the many reviewers and colleagues who provided us with detailed feedback on the chapters and for their perceptive comments and suggestions for improving the manuscript: Cheryl Adkins, Louisiana State University; Deborah Arvanites, Villanowa University; Robert Bontempo, Columbia University; W Randy Boxx, University of Mississippi; Dan Brass, Pennsylvania State University; Diane Caggiano, Fitchburg State University; Russell Coff, Washington University; Lucinda Doran, The Hay Group; Mark Fearing, University of Houston; Dave Fearon, Central Connecticut State University; Steve Grower, Indiana University; Bob Gulbro, Jacksonville State University; Jennifer Halpern, Cornell University; Sandra Hartman, University of New Orleans; Bruce Johnson, Gustavus Adolphus College; Mary Kernan, University of Delaware; Karen Maher, University of Missouri-St. Louis; Stephen Markham, North Carolina State University; Gary McMahan, University of Southern California; Janet Near, Indiana University; Tim Peterson, University of Tulsa; Allayne Pizzolatto, Nicholls State University; Peter Poole, Lehigh University; Elizabeth Ravlin, University of South Carolina; Diana Reed, Drake University; Sandra Robinson, New York University; Chris Scheck, Northern Illinois University; William Sharbrough, The Citadel; Eric Stephan, Brigham Young University; Charlotte Sutton, Auburn University; Susan Washburn, Stephen E Austin State University; and Frank Wiebe, University of Mississippi. Thanks are also due to Ken Bettenhausen, University of Colorado at Denver; David Bowen, Arizona State University-West; and Art Brief, Tulane University.

Finally, we are grateful to our children, Nicholas and Julia, for providing us with much fun and joy while we were engaged in the hard work of writing our book.

J.M.G.-G.R J.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction to Organizational Behavior
PART 1: INDIVIDUALS IN ORGANIZATIONS
Chapter 2: Individual Differences: Personality and Ability
Chapter 3: Values, Attitudes, and Moods and Emotions
Chapter 4: Perception, Attribution, and the Management of Diversity
Chapter 5: Learning and Creativity
Chapter 6: The Nature of Work Motivation
Chapter 7: Creating a Motivating Work Setting
Chapter 8: Pay, Careers, and Changing Employment Relationships
Chapter 9: Managing Stress and Work-Life Balance
PART 2: GROUP AND TEAM PROCESSES
Chapter 10: The Nature of Work Groups and Teams
Chapter 11: Effective Work Groups and Teams
Chapter 12: Leaders and Leadership
Chapter 13: Power, Politics, Conflict, and Negotiation
Chapter 14: Communicating Effectively in Organizations
Chapter 15: Decision Making and Organizational Learning
PART 3: ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES
Chapter 16: Organizational Design and Structure
Chapter 17: Organizational Culture and Ethical Behavior
Chapter 18: Organizational Change and Development
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Preface

The challenges of understanding and managing organizational behavior have become greater as the result of the information technology revolution and the globalization of business. The challenges have also become greater because organizational behavior scholars and researchers are developing new and improved theories and models that explain why and how people and groups behave as they do. Concepts like personality, trust, creativity, affect, moods, emotions, virtual teams, telecommuting, and knowledge management are now found in all the central research areas of organizational behavior such as learning, motivation, leadership, group behavior and communication. Our challenge in revising Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior has been to put both these sides of the coin together. First, to summarize the most important elements of this new knowledge and provide a thorough and contemporary account of organizational behavior (OB). Second, to convey this information to students in a readable and applied form so they can understand and enjoy it. Nowhere is this clearer than in our increased attention to the effects of information technology in the third edition.

Recognizing the sweeping changes that new information technology (IT) is currently having on people and tasks inside organizations, we make IT a major contemporary theme in the new edition. Through new text material and rich examples in opening cases and chapter insights we show dramatically how most aspects of OB are being impacted by computer-based linking and coordinating systems both inside (by the intranet) and outside (by the Internet) organizations. The use of IT at all levelsand in all parts of the organization has changed the nature of the jobs and work employees perform, and allowed people to work more efficiently and effectively. IT encompass a broad array of communication media including voice mail, e-mail, voice conferencing, video-conferencing, the Internet, groupware and corporate intranets, cell phones, fax machines, personal digital assistants, intelligent agents, and so on. Chapter by chapter we examine many of the specific ways in which IT impacts people, their roles and jobs, and the organization as a whole. We discuss the many profound ways IT is impacting organizational behavior including:

  • Using IT to enhance creativity and learning.
  • Effects of IT on job satisfaction, why dot-com companies are attractive to employees and problems traditional companies have had in recruiting and retaining employees.
  • Using automated (i.e., computerized) hiring programs to mitigate the effects of stereotyping and discrimination against employees and to crack down on e-mail harassment.
  • Using IT and the Internet to recruit and train employees.
  • Organizational learning and knowledge management through IT.
  • Using IT to develop new ways to attract, motivate, and retain talented employees.
  • Work-life linkages through such mechanisms as telecommuting.

We have also continued to strive to ensure that our book (1) is comprehensive, integrated, and makes important theories accessible and interesting to students; (2) is current, up-to-date, and contains expanded coverage of issues of contemporary significance such as ethics, diversity, and global management; and (3) uses rich, real-life examples of people and organizations to bring key concepts to life and provide clear managerial implications; (4) is experiential and applied. Our end-of-chapter experiential exercises contained in the Organizational Behavior in Action section give students the opportunity to catch the excitement of organizational behavior as a fluid, many-faceted discipline with multiple levels of analysis.

COMPREHENSIVE AND INTEGRATED COVERAGE

Most of the chapters of our book have been significantly revised to incorporate the most recent theoretical advances in organizational behavior into our book. Also, we have changed almost all of our opening and closing cases and insight boxes to build upon the contemporary themes that characterize coverage in our book. However, we have been careful to organize the material in an integrated way so that each part of the book builds on the previous parts, and inside each part, each chapter builds on the material in earlier chapters in a clear and logical fashion. In this way, students develop an integrated and cohesive understanding of organizational behavior. The comprehensive and integrated coverage in Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior includes the following highlights:

  • The book opens with an account of organizational behavior in Chapter 1 that demonstrates its real-world relevance and that outlines the key challenges managers face in today's global environment—managing information technology, diversity, ethics, competitive advantage, and global issues. New issues include using information technologies to increase employee creativity and organizational learning.
  • An up-to-date treatment of personality and ability and their implications for modern organizations is provided in Chapter 2, with detailed coverage of the Big Five Model of Personality. Expanded coverage is presented of emotional intelligence, creativity, openness to experience, and sources of entrepreneurship, the link between emotional intelligence and leadership; and training requirements posed by IT.
  • In Chapter 3, we present a model that explains clearly to students the relationship between work values, attitudes, and moods and their implications for such organizational behaviors as citizenship behavior. Two types of organizational commitment—affective commitment and continuance commitment—are identified and we examine the determinants and potential consequence of affective commitment. New to this edition is an updated and expanded discussion of work moods and a discussion of trust.
  • In Chapter 4, we use a unique approach in examining diversity from the perspective of perception and attribution-fundamental individual processes that operate in every organization. New to this edition is expanded coverage of sexual harassment and ways to combat it, and discussion of physically challenged workers.
  • Chapter 5 has extensive coverage of recent approaches to learning such as vicarious learning, self-control, and self-efficacy. New to this edition is expanded discussion of organizational learning, the learning organization, and the effects of knowledge management on organizational learning.
  • Three chapters on motivation (Chapters 6, 7, and 8). We offer an integrated approach to understanding work motivation, one of the most important challenges in organizational behavior. First, we present the overall model of motivation and then explain how the different theories of motivation are related and complementary and offer an in-depth treatment of procedural justice theory. Then, building on basic theories of motivation, we discuss job design, goal setting, performance appraisal, pay, and careers as motivation tools. The inclusion of social information processing theory and a discussion of the limits to goal setting are developed here as is our analysis of ethical career management, career management that supports diversity, and career management in an era of dual-career couples, contingent workers and 360-degree performance appraisals. Also discussed is how high-tech companies are using innovative outcomes to attract, motivate, and retain talented employees. New to this edition is discussion of scientific management in "new" kinds of organizations like Internet companies and how the use of stock-options at high-tech companies have prompted other more traditional organizations to increase their use of merit pay.
  • Chapter 9 on stress and work-life linkages contains new discussion of effects of information technology on workplace stress; also how working in cross-cultural teams can be stressful, but why it is important to work through misunderstandings and potential conflicts because of the advantages these teams bring. Also, there is a major new section on telecommuting including recent research findings.
  • Two chapters (Chapters 10 and 11) set forth an integrated coverage of groups as the basic building blocks of organizations. After describing the nature of work groups and the ways in which groups control their members, we focus on what makes for effective work groups in organizations. The discussion of process losses and gains, social loafing, and important types of groups such as the top management team, self-managed work teams, and R&D teams are innovations. New to this edition is material on how office design can be used to capture advantages of social facilitation and allow for teamwork while also giving workers private work space. Also we include a new discussion of conformity and national culture with examples of high conformity in Japan. Finally, a new section on virtual teams reflects the information technology theme.
  • Chapter 12 contains a new discussion of research on and new material on leadership and emotional intelligence and recent research on gender and punishment.
  • Chapter 13 contains a new discussion of information available over the Internet, such as domestic and global email, ethics of surfing the Web at work, a discussion of electronic trails, information technology, and information overload. It also includes a discussion of the paperless office and the effects of increased use of electronic communication.
  • At the intergroup and organizational level of analysis we ,provide a two-chapter (Chapters 15 and 16) integrated treatment of organizational design, organizational structure, and organizational culture. After discussing the basic building blocks of organizational structure and culture, we provide an up-to-date account of the three most important factors affecting the design of structure and culture: the organization's environment, strategy, and technology. This discussion includes coverage of cross-functional team structures and ethical cultures. Innovative use of a Web-based intranet to speed product development and improve coordination between subunits and new information about the way IT affects organizational structure is integrated throughout the chapter such as decentralization and integration and the idea of the boundaryless and virtual organization.
  • In addition to the extensive global material integrated throughout the whole text a whole chapter (Chapter 17) examines all aspects of managing global organizations. We want students to see how differences in attitudes, values, ethics, and ways of doing business in different countries present many challenges for managers. Coverage of cross-cultural differences in communication and understanding of linguistic styles is presented in Chapter 13. New to this edition is coverage of global video-teleconferencing, using IT to facilitate global communication, and effects of cross-cultural differences on the transfer of information.
  • The last chapter of the book (Chapter 19) continues to provide what we believe to be the most current treatment of organizational change in any organizational behavior textbook on the market. This chapter we offer an in-depth treatment of restructuring, reengineering, total quality management, and other approaches to increasing organizational effectiveness in today's increasingly competitive global environment. New to this edition is a discussion of e-engineering and of the effects of information systems on organizational roles and tasks.

EXTENSIVE LEARNING PACKAGE

We believe that no other organizational behavior textbook has the sheer range of learning features for students that our book has. These features—some integrated into the text and some at the end of each chapter or part—ease the student's way through the study of organizational behavior. All in all, these features were crafted so that instructors could actively involve their students in the chapter material. They provide an interactive approach to teaching organizational behavior that helps students understand and appreciate the complexity of the challenges facing managers and workers in today's business environment.

Opening Curse
The student enters the chapter via an in-depth, real-world example of people and organizations that focuses attention on the upcoming chapter issues.

Running Glossary
To address the abundance of terminology that an introductory student needs to assimilate, we have included a running glossary that provides a definition for every key term in the book.

Advice to Managers
In each chapter, we have included two or more managerial summaries called "Advice to Managers," where the practical implications of key organizational behavior theories and concepts are clearly outlined. These take-home lessons extend the chapter material into the realm of application in ways that students can actually use when they enter the workplace.

Insight Boxes
Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior reflects all the current and pressing concerns facing organizations and their managers and workers today. We have created interesting real-world examples geared to the subject matter of the chapter to engage the student and to bring these concerns to life. These "Insights" are not mere summaries of academic studies or contrived situations, but are stories from the frontline of today's businesses. They are different from similar features in most other textbooks in that they are directly integrated into the text material to highlight and illustrate the most significant points. We have deliberately set up these features this way because our experience has shown that students are more likely to read material that is seamlessly woven into the fabric of the chapter rather than set apart.

Organizational Behavior in Action
The sections entitled "Organizational Behavior in Action" are found at the end of each chapter and include a wide range of activities to help students build the skills they will need as future managers and workers. We have carefully developed the features within these modules with both large and small classes in mind, as well as individual and group assignments. Our overriding goal is to help students appreciate that there are no absolute answers to organizational behavior issues and that they must instead learn how to analyze particular situations, compare alternative courses of action, and generate options for solution.

Building Diagnostic Skills
This experiential feature engages students by challenging them to explore, analyze, and diagnose actual organizational behavior, based on what they have just learned in the chapter. This exercise draws on students' own experience base to apply theories diagnostically to real situations from their own lives and to organizations and companies that they select.

Research on the Internet: A Manager's Tool
Each chapter also contains two Internet exercises that students can use to do research on the Internet. One is specific, and asks students to complete a particular assignment; one is general and asks them to do their own research.

Topics for Debate
This experiential feature is cast in a debate format and asks students to develop their own arguments as they examine chapter content from two different perspectives. Our experience has shown that debates, rebuttals, and questions from the audience fire up students' involvement and imagination and spark a high level of class participation.

Experiential Exercise
In this group-based exercise, students divide into groups to explore together the chapter material by focusing on a practical OB task, problem, or issue. Students must use all their knowledge and experience and work in a group situation—a dynamic they are sure to encounter in the workplace—to complete the assignment. These exercises are original and have been class-tested by the authors.

Making the Connection
Students collect real-world examples of people and organizations from newspapers like The Wall Street Journal and magazines like Fortune and Business Week to answer questions related to the chapter material. This feature represents a more advanced assignment that works especially well when the instructor requires students to subscribe to key business publications. The goal is to develop critical thinking tools in students and to help them apply OB principles to business organizations in the news.

Closing Case
Each chapter also contains a closing case that can be used to stimulate class discussion of the chapter content.

TEACHING PACKAGE

The following supplements accompany the third edition:

  • Instructor's Manual. The Instructor's Manual offers detailed chapter outlines and lecture support as well as additional applications, revised teaching suggestions, and tips on integrating media.
  • Test Item File. Each chapter of the Test Item File includes true/false, multiple-choice, and essay questions. Together, the questions cover the content of each chapter in a variety of ways providing flexibility in testing the students' knowledge of the text.
  • Instructor's Resource CD-ROM. This Windows-based CD-ROM contains the computerized Test Bank, PowerPoint slides, and Instructor's Manual. A revised comprehensive package of text outlines and figures corresponding to the text, the PowerPoint transparencies are designed to aid the educator and supplement in-class lectures. Test Manager, containing all of the questions printed in the Test Item File, is a comprehensive suite of tools for testing and assessment. Test Manager allows educators to create and distribute tests for their courses easily, either by printing and distributing through traditional methods or by on-line delivery via a Local Area Network (LAN) server.
  • On Location! Video. A collection of new part-ending video segments is available to qualified adopters. These segments focus on the technology company Studentadvantage.com, and cover key topics in the chapters including information technology, organizational structure, and motivation.
  • Standard Web CT-Free to adopters. Standard Web CT, an online course from Prentice Hall, features Companion Web Site and Test Item File Content in an easy-to-use system. Developed by educators for educators and their students, this online content and tools feature the most advanced educational technology and instructional design available today. The rich set of materials, communication tools, and course management resources can be easily customized to either enhance a traditional course or create the entire course online. Courses are also available in Standard Blackboard and Course Compass.
  • myPHLIP Web Site. The new myPHLIP provides professors with a customized course Web site including net communication tools, one-click navigation of chapter content, and great PHLIP resources such as current events and Internet exercises.
  • Prentice Hall Self-Assessment Library Version 2.0. This revised Prentice Hall Self-Assessment Library CD-ROM includes several new self-assessment exercises organized by group, individual, and organization. Results are scored and evaluated electronically. This CD-ROM, also offered in print and now online, is available at a small additional cost when ordered with the text. Please see your Prentice Hall sales representative for details.
  • PH Guide to e- Commerce and e-Business for Management. Free with any PH text, this guide introduces students to many aspects of e-business and the Internet, providing tips on searching out information, looking for jobs, continuing education, and using the Internet in Management courses.
  • Mastering Management from the Mastering Business Series. The multimedia tool that means business. Mastering Business is a technologically innovative CD-ROM that uses video and interactive exercises to engage students actively in learning core business concepts across core business disciplines. For more information, pricing, or to request a Mastering Business demo CD-ROM, please contact your local sales representative.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Finding a way to coordinate and integrate the rich and diverse organizational behavior literature is no easy task. Neither is it easy to present the material in a way that students can easily understand and enjoy, given the plethora of concepts, theories, and research findings. In writing Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior, we were fortunate to have had the assistance of several people who contributed greatly to the book's final form. We are grateful to David Shafer and Jennifer Glennon, for providing us with timely feedback and information from professors and reviewers that have allowed us to shape the book to meet the needs of its intended market and to Judy Leale and Kim Marsden for ably coordinating the book's progress. Additionally, we want to thank Michele Foresta for her hard work on the supplements that accompany this book. We also thank Elaine Morris of Rice University for her secretarial and word-processing support, and Patsy Hartmangruber at Texas A & M.

We are grateful to the many reviewers and colleagues who provided us with detailed feedback on the chapters and for their perceptive comments and suggestions for improving the manuscript: Cheryl Adkins, Louisiana State University; Deborah Arvanites, Villanowa University; Robert Bontempo, Columbia University; W Randy Boxx, University of Mississippi; Dan Brass, Pennsylvania State University; Diane Caggiano, Fitchburg State University; Russell Coff, Washington University; Lucinda Doran, The Hay Group; Mark Fearing, University of Houston; Dave Fearon, Central Connecticut State University; Steve Grower, Indiana University; Bob Gulbro, Jacksonville State University; Jennifer Halpern, Cornell University; Sandra Hartman, University of New Orleans; Bruce Johnson, Gustavus Adolphus College; Mary Kernan, University of Delaware; Karen Maher, University of Missouri-St. Louis; Stephen Markham, North Carolina State University; Gary McMahan, University of Southern California; Janet Near, Indiana University; Tim Peterson, University of Tulsa; Allayne Pizzolatto, Nicholls State University; Peter Poole, Lehigh University; Elizabeth Ravlin, University of South Carolina; Diana Reed, Drake University; Sandra Robinson, New York University; Chris Scheck, Northern Illinois University; William Sharbrough, The Citadel; Eric Stephan, Brigham Young University; Charlotte Sutton, Auburn University; Susan Washburn, Stephen E Austin State University; and Frank Wiebe, University of Mississippi. Thanks are also due to Ken Bettenhausen, University of Colorado at Denver; David Bowen, Arizona State University-West; and Art Brief, Tulane University.

Finally, we are grateful to our children, Nicholas and Julia, for providing us with much fun and joy while we were engaged in the hard work of writing our book.

J.M.G.-G.R J.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

The challenges of understanding and managing organizational behavior have become greater as the result of the information technology revolution and the globalization of business. The challenges have also become greater because organizational behavior scholars and researchers are developing new and improved theories and models that explain why and how people and groups behave as they do. Concepts like personality, trust, creativity, affect, moods, emotions, virtual teams, telecommuting, and knowledge management are now found in all the central research areas of organizational behavior such as learning, motivation, leadership, group behavior and communication. Our challenge in revising Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior has been to put both these sides of the coin together. First, to summarize the most important elements of this new knowledge and provide a thorough and contemporary account of organizational behavior (OB). Second, to convey this information to students in a readable and applied form so they can understand and enjoy it. Nowhere is this clearer than in our increased attention to the effects of information technology in the third edition.

Recognizing the sweeping changes that new information technology (IT) is currently having on people and tasks inside organizations, we make IT a major contemporary theme in the new edition. Through new text material and rich examples in opening cases and chapter insights we show dramatically how most aspects of OB are being impacted by computer-based linking and coordinating systems both inside (by the intranet) and outside (by the Internet) organizations. The use of IT at all levels andin all parts of the organization has changed the nature of the jobs and work employees perform, and allowed people to work more efficiently and effectively. IT encompass a broad array of communication media including voice mail, e-mail, voice conferencing, video-conferencing, the Internet, groupware and corporate intranets, cell phones, fax machines, personal digital assistants, intelligent agents, and so on. Chapter by chapter we examine many of the specific ways in which IT impacts people, their roles and jobs, and the organization as a whole. We discuss the many profound ways IT is impacting organizational behavior including:

  • Using IT to enhance creativity and learning.
  • Effects of IT on job satisfaction, why dot-com companies are attractive to employees and problems traditional companies have had in recruiting and retaining employees.
  • Using automated (i.e., computerized) hiring programs to mitigate the effects of stereotyping and discrimination against employees and to crack down on e-mail harassment.
  • Using IT and the Internet to recruit and train employees.
  • Organizational learning and knowledge management through IT.
  • Using IT to develop new ways to attract, motivate, and retain talented employees.
  • Work-life linkages through such mechanisms as telecommuting.

We have also continued to strive to ensure that our book (1) is comprehensive, integrated, and makes important theories accessible and interesting to students; (2) is current, up-to-date, and contains expanded coverage of issues of contemporary significance such as ethics, diversity, and global management; and (3) uses rich, real-life examples of people and organizations to bring key concepts to life and provide clear managerial implications; (4) is experiential and applied. Our end-of-chapter experiential exercises contained in the Organizational Behavior in Action section give students the opportunity to catch the excitement of organizational behavior as a fluid, many-faceted discipline with multiple levels of analysis.

COMPREHENSIVE AND INTEGRATED COVERAGE

Most of the chapters of our book have been significantly revised to incorporate the most recent theoretical advances in organizational behavior into our book. Also, we have changed almost all of our opening and closing cases and insight boxes to build upon the contemporary themes that characterize coverage in our book. However, we have been careful to organize the material in an integrated way so that each part of the book builds on the previous parts, and inside each part, each chapter builds on the material in earlier chapters in a clear and logical fashion. In this way, students develop an integrated and cohesive understanding of organizational behavior. The comprehensive and integrated coverage in Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior includes the following highlights:

  • The book opens with an account of organizational behavior in Chapter 1 that demonstrates its real-world relevance and that outlines the key challenges managers face in today's global environment—managing information technology, diversity, ethics, competitive advantage, and global issues. New issues include using information technologies to increase employee creativity and organizational learning.
  • An up-to-date treatment of personality and ability and their implications for modern organizations is provided in Chapter 2, with detailed coverage of the Big Five Model of Personality. Expanded coverage is presented of emotional intelligence, creativity, openness to experience, and sources of entrepreneurship, the link between emotional intelligence and leadership; and training requirements posed by IT.
  • In Chapter 3, we present a model that explains clearly to students the relationship between work values, attitudes, and moods and their implications for such organizational behaviors as citizenship behavior. Two types of organizational commitment—affective commitment and continuance commitment—are identified and we examine the determinants and potential consequence of affective commitment. New to this edition is an updated and expanded discussion of work moods and a discussion of trust.
  • In Chapter 4, we use a unique approach in examining diversity from the perspective of perception and attribution-fundamental individual processes that operate in every organization. New to this edition is expanded coverage of sexual harassment and ways to combat it, and discussion of physically challenged workers.
  • Chapter 5 has extensive coverage of recent approaches to learning such as vicarious learning, self-control, and self-efficacy. New to this edition is expanded discussion of organizational learning, the learning organization, and the effects of knowledge management on organizational learning.
  • Three chapters on motivation (Chapters 6, 7, and 8). We offer an integrated approach to understanding work motivation, one of the most important challenges in organizational behavior. First, we present the overall model of motivation and then explain how the different theories of motivation are related and complementary and offer an in-depth treatment of procedural justice theory. Then, building on basic theories of motivation, we discuss job design, goal setting, performance appraisal, pay, and careers as motivation tools. The inclusion of social information processing theory and a discussion of the limits to goal setting are developed here as is our analysis of ethical career management, career management that supports diversity, and career management in an era of dual-career couples, contingent workers and 360-degree performance appraisals. Also discussed is how high-tech companies are using innovative outcomes to attract, motivate, and retain talented employees. New to this edition is discussion of scientific management in "new" kinds of organizations like Internet companies and how the use of stock-options at high-tech companies have prompted other more traditional organizations to increase their use of merit pay.
  • Chapter 9 on stress and work-life linkages contains new discussion of effects of information technology on workplace stress; also how working in cross-cultural teams can be stressful, but why it is important to work through misunderstandings and potential conflicts because of the advantages these teams bring. Also, there is a major new section on telecommuting including recent research findings.
  • Two chapters (Chapters 10 and 11) set forth an integrated coverage of groups as the basic building blocks of organizations. After describing the nature of work groups and the ways in which groups control their members, we focus on what makes for effective work groups in organizations. The discussion of process losses and gains, social loafing, and important types of groups such as the top management team, self-managed work teams, and R&D teams are innovations. New to this edition is material on how office design can be used to capture advantages of social facilitation and allow for teamwork while also giving workers private work space. Also we include a new discussion of conformity and national culture with examples of high conformity in Japan. Finally, a new section on virtual teams reflects the information technology theme.
  • Chapter 12 contains a new discussion of research on and new material on leadership and emotional intelligence and recent research on gender and punishment.
  • Chapter 13 contains a new discussion of information available over the Internet, such as domestic and global email, ethics of surfing the Web at work, a discussion of electronic trails, information technology, and information overload. It also includes a discussion of the paperless office and the effects of increased use of electronic communication.
  • At the intergroup and organizational level of analysis we ,provide a two-chapter (Chapters 15 and 16) integrated treatment of organizational design, organizational structure, and organizational culture. After discussing the basic building blocks of organizational structure and culture, we provide an up-to-date account of the three most important factors affecting the design of structure and culture: the organization's environment, strategy, and technology. This discussion includes coverage of cross-functional team structures and ethical cultures. Innovative use of a Web-based intranet to speed product development and improve coordination between subunits and new information about the way IT affects organizational structure is integrated throughout the chapter such as decentralization and integration and the idea of the boundaryless and virtual organization.
  • In addition to the extensive global material integrated throughout the whole text a whole chapter (Chapter 17) examines all aspects of managing global organizations. We want students to see how differences in attitudes, values, ethics, and ways of doing business in different countries present many challenges for managers. Coverage of cross-cultural differences in communication and understanding of linguistic styles is presented in Chapter 13. New to this edition is coverage of global video-teleconferencing, using IT to facilitate global communication, and effects of cross-cultural differences on the transfer of information.
  • The last chapter of the book (Chapter 19) continues to provide what we believe to be the most current treatment of organizational change in any organizational behavior textbook on the market. This chapter we offer an in-depth treatment of restructuring, reengineering, total quality management, and other approaches to increasing organizational effectiveness in today's increasingly competitive global environment. New to this edition is a discussion of e-engineering and of the effects of information systems on organizational roles and tasks.

EXTENSIVE LEARNING PACKAGE

We believe that no other organizational behavior textbook has the sheer range of learning features for students that our book has. These features—some integrated into the text and some at the end of each chapter or part—ease the student's way through the study of organizational behavior. All in all, these features were crafted so that instructors could actively involve their students in the chapter material. They provide an interactive approach to teaching organizational behavior that helps students understand and appreciate the complexity of the challenges facing managers and workers in today's business environment.

Opening Curse
The student enters the chapter via an in-depth, real-world example of people and organizations that focuses attention on the upcoming chapter issues.

Running Glossary
To address the abundance of terminology that an introductory student needs to assimilate, we have included a running glossary that provides a definition for every key term in the book.

Advice to Managers
In each chapter, we have included two or more managerial summaries called "Advice to Managers," where the practical implications of key organizational behavior theories and concepts are clearly outlined. These take-home lessons extend the chapter material into the realm of application in ways that students can actually use when they enter the workplace.

Insight Boxes
Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior reflects all the current and pressing concerns facing organizations and their managers and workers today. We have created interesting real-world examples geared to the subject matter of the chapter to engage the student and to bring these concerns to life. These "Insights" are not mere summaries of academic studies or contrived situations, but are stories from the frontline of today's businesses. They are different from similar features in most other textbooks in that they are directly integrated into the text material to highlight and illustrate the most significant points. We have deliberately set up these features this way because our experience has shown that students are more likely to read material that is seamlessly woven into the fabric of the chapter rather than set apart.

Organizational Behavior in Action
The sections entitled "Organizational Behavior in Action" are found at the end of each chapter and include a wide range of activities to help students build the skills they will need as future managers and workers. We have carefully developed the features within these modules with both large and small classes in mind, as well as individual and group assignments. Our overriding goal is to help students appreciate that there are no absolute answers to organizational behavior issues and that they must instead learn how to analyze particular situations, compare alternative courses of action, and generate options for solution.

Building Diagnostic Skills
This experiential feature engages students by challenging them to explore, analyze, and diagnose actual organizational behavior, based on what they have just learned in the chapter. This exercise draws on students' own experience base to apply theories diagnostically to real situations from their own lives and to organizations and companies that they select.

Research on the Internet: A Manager's Tool
Each chapter also contains two Internet exercises that students can use to do research on the Internet. One is specific, and asks students to complete a particular assignment; one is general and asks them to do their own research.

Topics for Debate
This experiential feature is cast in a debate format and asks students to develop their own arguments as they examine chapter content from two different perspectives. Our experience has shown that debates, rebuttals, and questions from the audience fire up students' involvement and imagination and spark a high level of class participation.

Experiential Exercise
In this group-based exercise, students divide into groups to explore together the chapter material by focusing on a practical OB task, problem, or issue. Students must use all their knowledge and experience and work in a group situation—a dynamic they are sure to encounter in the workplace—to complete the assignment. These exercises are original and have been class-tested by the authors.

Making the Connection
Students collect real-world examples of people and organizations from newspapers like The Wall Street Journal and magazines like Fortune and Business Week to answer questions related to the chapter material. This feature represents a more advanced assignment that works especially well when the instructor requires students to subscribe to key business publications. The goal is to develop critical thinking tools in students and to help them apply OB principles to business organizations in the news.

Closing Case
Each chapter also contains a closing case that can be used to stimulate class discussion of the chapter content.

TEACHING PACKAGE

The following supplements accompany the third edition:

  • Instructor's Manual. The Instructor's Manual offers detailed chapter outlines and lecture support as well as additional applications, revised teaching suggestions, and tips on integrating media.
  • Test Item File. Each chapter of the Test Item File includes true/false, multiple-choice, and essay questions. Together, the questions cover the content of each chapter in a variety of ways providing flexibility in testing the students' knowledge of the text.
  • Instructor's Resource CD-ROM. This Windows-based CD-ROM contains the computerized Test Bank, PowerPoint slides, and Instructor's Manual. A revised comprehensive package of text outlines and figures corresponding to the text, the PowerPoint transparencies are designed to aid the educator and supplement in-class lectures. Test Manager, containing all of the questions printed in the Test Item File, is a comprehensive suite of tools for testing and assessment. Test Manager allows educators to create and distribute tests for their courses easily, either by printing and distributing through traditional methods or by on-line delivery via a Local Area Network (LAN) server.
  • On Location! Video. A collection of new part-ending video segments is available to qualified adopters. These segments focus on the technology company Studentadvantage.com, and cover key topics in the chapters including information technology, organizational structure, and motivation.
  • Standard Web CT-Free to adopters. Standard Web CT, an online course from Prentice Hall, features Companion Web Site and Test Item File Content in an easy-to-use system. Developed by educators for educators and their students, this online content and tools feature the most advanced educational technology and instructional design available today. The rich set of materials, communication tools, and course management resources can be easily customized to either enhance a traditional course or create the entire course online. Courses are also available in Standard Blackboard and Course Compass.
  • myPHLIP Web Site. The new myPHLIP provides professors with a customized course Web site including net communication tools, one-click navigation of chapter content, and great PHLIP resources such as current events and Internet exercises.
  • Prentice Hall Self-Assessment Library Version 2.0. This revised Prentice Hall Self-Assessment Library CD-ROM includes several new self-assessment exercises organized by group, individual, and organization. Results are scored and evaluated electronically. This CD-ROM, also offered in print and now online, is available at a small additional cost when ordered with the text. Please see your Prentice Hall sales representative for details.
  • PH Guide to e- Commerce and e-Business for Management. Free with any PH text, this guide introduces students to many aspects of e-business and the Internet, providing tips on searching out information, looking for jobs, continuing education, and using the Internet in Management courses.
  • Mastering Management from the Mastering Business Series. The multimedia tool that means business. Mastering Business is a technologically innovative CD-ROM that uses video and interactive exercises to engage students actively in learning core business concepts across core business disciplines. For more information, pricing, or to request a Mastering Business demo CD-ROM, please contact your local sales representative.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Finding a way to coordinate and integrate the rich and diverse organizational behavior literature is no easy task. Neither is it easy to present the material in a way that students can easily understand and enjoy, given the plethora of concepts, theories, and research findings. In writing Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior, we were fortunate to have had the assistance of several people who contributed greatly to the book's final form. We are grateful to David Shafer and Jennifer Glennon, for providing us with timely feedback and information from professors and reviewers that have allowed us to shape the book to meet the needs of its intended market and to Judy Leale and Kim Marsden for ably coordinating the book's progress. Additionally, we want to thank Michele Foresta for her hard work on the supplements that accompany this book. We also thank Elaine Morris of Rice University for her secretarial and word-processing support, and Patsy Hartmangruber at Texas A & M.

We are grateful to the many reviewers and colleagues who provided us with detailed feedback on the chapters and for their perceptive comments and suggestions for improving the manuscript: Cheryl Adkins, Louisiana State University; Deborah Arvanites, Villanowa University; Robert Bontempo, Columbia University; W Randy Boxx, University of Mississippi; Dan Brass, Pennsylvania State University; Diane Caggiano, Fitchburg State University; Russell Coff, Washington University; Lucinda Doran, The Hay Group; Mark Fearing, University of Houston; Dave Fearon, Central Connecticut State University; Steve Grower, Indiana University; Bob Gulbro, Jacksonville State University; Jennifer Halpern, Cornell University; Sandra Hartman, University of New Orleans; Bruce Johnson, Gustavus Adolphus College; Mary Kernan, University of Delaware; Karen Maher, University of Missouri-St. Louis; Stephen Markham, North Carolina State University; Gary McMahan, University of Southern California; Janet Near, Indiana University; Tim Peterson, University of Tulsa; Allayne Pizzolatto, Nicholls State University; Peter Poole, Lehigh University; Elizabeth Ravlin, University of South Carolina; Diana Reed, Drake University; Sandra Robinson, New York University; Chris Scheck, Northern Illinois University; William Sharbrough, The Citadel; Eric Stephan, Brigham Young University; Charlotte Sutton, Auburn University; Susan Washburn, Stephen E Austin State University; and Frank Wiebe, University of Mississippi. Thanks are also due to Ken Bettenhausen, University of Colorado at Denver; David Bowen, Arizona State University-West; and Art Brief, Tulane University.

Finally, we are grateful to our children, Nicholas and Julia, for providing us with much fun and joy while we were engaged in the hard work of writing our book.

J.M.G.-G.R J.

Read More Show Less

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