Table of Contents
I / Concepts and Indicators in Humanistic Sociology.- 1. The Problem of ‘Verstehen’.- 2. Observable and Hypothetical Properties in Sociological Concepts.- 3. Concepts Defined with Humanistic Coefficient in the Language of Sociology.- 4. Understanding Constructs in Defining the Dependent and Independent Variables of Social Theories.- 5. The Validity of Introspectionist ‘Self-Evidence’.- 6. Motives of Goal-Oriented Behaviors.- 7. Human Rationality as Explanatory Principle.- 8. Defining and Assessment — Two Operations Called Verstehen.- 9. Types of Indicators of Meaningful Sociological Variables.- 10. Behavioral Indicators and ‘Surplus Meanings’ in Behavioral Theories.- 11. The Validity of Indicators in Empirical Social Studies.- Notes 69 Bibliography.- II / Verbal Communications As Indicators of Sociological Variables.- 1. The Structure of the ‘Communication Chain’.- 2. Two Categories of Factors Distorting the Communicative Relation.- 3. Verbal Behaviors and their Behavioral Correlates as ‘Legitimate’ Objects of Social Studies.- 4. Inferences Based on Assumption of Correspondence at the Expressive Level.- 5. Expressive and Other Instrumental Functions of Verbal Behavior.- 6. Problems of the Validity of Subjectively Sincere Communications.- 7. Inferences from and of Distortions of the Cognitive Relation.- Notes.- III / Meaning and Measurement in Comparative Studies.- 1. Conceptual and Operational Aspects of Phenomenal and Relational Comparability.- 2. Types of Relational Equivalences.- 3. Declared vs. Reconstructed Meaning of Attitudes.- 4. Ideological Connotation of Attitude Toward ‘Socialism’ Among Warsaw Students — A Case Study of ‘Measurement of Meaning’ of Political Attitudes.- 5. ‘Marxism’ and ‘Socialism’ — Two Variables with Similar Meaning and Different Intensity.- Notes.- IV / Comparative Social Research and Methodological Problems of Sociological Induction.- 1. Different Aspects of Generality of Theoretical Social Propositions.- 2. Conditional Causal Relations and Their Observable Consequences.- 3. Historical and Universal Concepts and Hypotheses in Comparative Social Research.- 4. The Strategy of Inductive Comparative Studies.- 5. The Role of Reductive Systematization of Theories in Formulation and Indirect Confirmation of Hypotheses.- 6. Historical Dimension of Social Phenomena and the Problems of Sociological Induction.- 7. The Problem of Spuriousness and the Role of Genetic Explanations in Social Theory.- 8. Comparative Induction and the Problem of One-Case Macro-Theories.- Notes.- V / Causal Interpretation of Statistical Relationships in Social Research.- 1. The Problem of Causality.- 2. Typology of Causal Relations.- 3. Statistical Laws and Historical Generalizations.- 4. Statistical Relationships in Unconditional and Conditional Causal Patterns.- 5. Statistical Relationships in Multistage Causal Chains.- 6. Relative Frequencies and Random Probabilistic Relations.- 7. Causality, Correlation and Spurious Independence.- 8. Spurious Correlations.- 9. The Test Variable as a Supplementary Factor and as an Alternative Cause.- 10. Some other Functions of the Test Variable.- 11. A Typology of Three-Variable Analyses.- 12. Additivity and Interaction between the Quantitative Variables.- Notes.- VI / Inductive Inconsistencies and The Problems of Probabilistic Predictions.- 1. ‘Inconsistencies’ Generated by Statistical Syllogism.- 2. ‘Contradictions’ Generated by General Conditional Laws of Science.- 3. Probability and Randomness.- 4. The Unconditional and Conditional Probabilistic Relations.- 5. Two Kinds of Conditionality of Probabilistic Relations.- 6. Patterns of Probabilistic Predictions and the Problem of Inductive Inconsistencies.- 7. Mr. Petersen Revisited.- 8. Deriving the Probabilities for Intersections of Additive and Interacting Causal Collectives.- Notes.- VII / Logical and Empirical Assumptions of Validity of Inductions.- 1. The Role and Nature of Empirical Presuppositions in Inductive Reasoning.- 2. The Assumption of Complete Uniformity within a Class of Objects or Events.- 3. The Assumption of Randomness in Statistical Induction.- 4. The Assumption of Randomness in Enumerative Induction.- 5. The Possibility of Estimating the Degree of Unconditionally of General Causal Hypotheses.- 6. Conclusions.- Notes.- VIII / Empirical Knowledge and Social Values in The Cumulative Development of Sociology.- 1. Symptoms of Crisis in Sociology.- 2. Cumulative Character of Empirically Tested Propositions and Theories.- 3. Empirical and Normative Components in the Divergent Interpretations of Findings.- 4. Normative and Empirical Assumptions of Particular ‘Approaches’.- 5. Instrumental Functions of Sociology.- 6. Ideological Functions of Sociology.- Notes.- IX / Cultural Norms As Explanatory Constructs in Theories of Social Behavior.- 1. Two Types of Sociological Explanations and Predictions.- 2. Cultural Norms as Matrices of Human Behaviors.- 3. Methodological Features of the Laws of Isomorphism.- 4. Different Meanings of the Term ‘Cultural Norm’.- 5. Norm in the Coercive Sense.- 6. Norm in the Motivational Sense.- 7. Norm in the Behavioral Sense.- 8. Norm in the Complex Sense and Patterns of Normative Integration.- 9. Matrix Laws and Macrosociological Theory.- Notes.- X / Role and Limits of The ‘Functional Approach’ In Formulation of Theories of Attitudes.- 1. Internal and External Functionality of Attitudes.- 2. Theory or a Heuristic Directive.- 3. The Danger of Teleologism.- 4. Different Patterns of Conscious and Unconscious Instrumentality.- 5. The Principle of Functionality and the Problems of Prediction.- 6. Spontaneously Formed and Culturally Imposed Attitudes.- Notes.- XI / The Logic of Reductive Systematizations of Social and Behavioral Theories.- 1. The ‘Problem of Reduction’ in Social Sciences.- 2. Two Basic Patterns of Reduction.- 3. The Reduction of Laws to More General Laws.- 4. Reductions and Pseudo-Reductions.- 5. Problems of incomplete Reductions.- 6. Explaining a Law by a Number of Additive Laws.- 7. Reduction of Statistical Laws.- 8. ‘Objective Existence’ of Collectivities and the Definitional Dependence of their Characteristics upon the Characteristics of their Members.- 9. General Pattern of Inter-Level Reductions and the Character of Correspondence Rules in Reductive Social Theories.- 10. The Problem of ‘Emergence’.- 11. Laws of Behavior and Laws of Social Interaction in Reductive Social Theories.- 12. Statistical Relationships in Multi-Level Reductions.- 13. Some Special Problems of ‘Emergence’ in Sociology.- 14. Postulates of Reductionism and the Relations between Sociology and Psychology.- Notes.- XII / Values and Knowledge in The Theory of Education: A Paradigm for an Applied Social Science.- 1. Theory or Theories of Education.- 2. Problem of Systematization of Theoretical Knowledge in the Science of Education.- 3. Construction of Models of Educational Situations for Explanation and Prediction.- 4. Certain Characteristics of Practical Sciences.- 5. Problems Connected with the Choice of Goals of Educational Processes.- 6. Ordering of the Goals of Educational Programs Understood as Systems of Values.- 7. Evaluation of the Distance between Educational Goals and Starting Point.- 8. Theoretical Evaluation of Attainability of Intended Educational Goals.- 9. The Manipulable Variables of the Educational Situation.- 10. Educational Institutions and the Wider Educational Environment.- Notes.- Index of Names.
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