Understanding Developmental Disorders: A Causal Modelling Approach / Edition 1

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A long-awaited book from developmental disorders expert John Morton, Understanding Developmental Disorders: A Causal Modelling Approach makes sense of the many competing theories about what can go wrong with early brain development, causing a child to develop outside the normal range.

  • Based on the idea that understanding developmental disorders requires us to talk about biological, cognitive, behavioral and environmental factors, and to talk about causal relationships among these elements.
  • Explains what causal modelling is and how to do it.
  • Compares different theories about particular developmental disorders using causal modelling.
  • Will have a profound impact on research in the fields of psychology, neuroscience and medicine.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"What causes disorders of development? How can they be meaningfullydefined? These questions have resulted in deeply entangledcontroversies. John Morton has provided a razor-sharp tool thatcuts the Gordian knot. This tool uses a simple pictorial notationthat leaves aside ambiguous and divisive words. It resolvesentrenched but illusory oppositions between cognition and brain andbetween nature and nurture. It makes the confusing facts aboutautism, dyslexia, and other disorders fall into a new coherentpattern and invigorates the comparison of different points of view.This book is indispensable for anyone trying to understandcognitive development and its disorders." Uta Frith, Professorof Cognitive Development, University College LondonInstitute of Cognitive Neuroscience

"In his compelling book, Understanding DevelopmentalDisorders, John Morton applies a causal modeling approach tounderstanding the influences that biological, cognitive,behavioral, and environmental factors exert on the emergence ofdevelopmental disorders. Morton eloquently conveys a way ofconceptualizing various theories of developmental disorders. Thisvolume will provide an invaluable tool for students, practitioners,and those in academia. I highly recommend it as a must for allprofessionals striving to understand the origins and course ofdevelopmental disorders." Dante Cicchetti, Ph.D., Director, Mt.Hope Family Center

"Causal modelling of cognition is a new and original tool notonly for thinking with precision about cognitive development andthe ways in which it can go amiss; I can see this book having arevolutionary impact on developmental psychology. Thecausal-modelling framework is also valuable for exposing the kindof sloppy thinking about the causes of developmental difficultiesthat one sees so often in statements by journalists and politicians(the book contains many such examples). Simply and cogentlywritten, this book is of great importance both for scientists indevelopmental psychology and for public-health professionalsconcerned with disorders such as autism, ADHD and dyslexia."Prof Max Coltheart, Scientific Director, Macquarie Centre forCognitive Science, Australia

"John Morton's deep and wonderful book should be requiredreading for any serious student of cognitive development, as wellas for any researcher concerned with developmental disabilities. Ingiving us a tool for thinking about the causal history ofdevelopmental disabilities, he offers profound insights into thenature of causality, the relations among different levels ofanalysis, and the causes of four developmental syndromes, includingautism and dyslexia." Susan Carey, Professor, HarvardUniversity

"Morton's lucid and highly readable book offers an excellenttool to clarify the field of developmental disorders as it standsand to point the way to the future." Trends in CognitiveSciences, August 2005

"Morton writes from first principles but then, as the bookprogresses, assumes some psychological sophistication. He has acomfortable and conversational...style that has become unusual inscientific writing. It invites reflection, questioning anddiscussion and I found it well suited to putting across concepts."Tom Berney, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, May2006

“Morton’s causal modeling approach seems aninnovative and insightful advance in examining and understandingthe causes and diagnosis of pathologic conditions.”Psychological Record

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780631187585
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 1/24/2005
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 320
  • Product dimensions: 6.04 (w) x 9.08 (h) x 0.94 (d)

Meet the Author

John Morton is the former Director of the Medical Research Council’s Cognitive Development Unit. He is now Visiting Professor in the Department of Psychology and Honorary Fellow of the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London.

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Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Introducing Cause.

Cause and Public Issues – ‘Working Mums Blamed forChildren’s Failures’.

Cause and Individual Events – ‘Why Did RomeoDie?’.

Why Look at Cause?.

Some More Reasons for Not Looking at Individual Cases.

The Need for a Framework for Thinking In.

Creating a Tool – The Problem of Notation.

An Example of The Limits of Language.

An Invitation to Consider Diagrams as a Tool.

A Tool for Representing Causal Relationships.

Chapter 2 Introducing Cognition.

One Thing I Do Want You to Believe.


Can We Rely on Behaviour?.

The IQ Example – A Note of Caution.

Why Cause Needs Cognition.

Chapter 3 Representing Causal Relationships.

Categorizing Facts.

The Causal Notation.

Starting a Causal Model for Autism.


Some Easy Stuff On Cause and Correlation.

Other Notations.

Chapter 4 Causal Accounts of Autism.

How Causal Modelling Started.

The Merry-Go-Round of Circular Reasoning.

The Biological Origin of Autism.

The Role Of Cognition in Defining Autism.

What is Mentalizing?.

Changes over Time.

The Non-Social Features of Autism: How to Diagram Ideas on WeakCentral Coherence in Autism.

Chapter 5 The What and the How.

Ground Rules Of Causal Modelling.

Chapter 6 Competing Causal Accounts of Autism.

Representing the Effects of Environmental Factors.

Cognitive Theories of Autism.

Chapter 7 The Problem of Diagnosis.

Diagnosis and Cause – Relying on Behaviour.

The Spanish Inquisition Example – The Dangers ofLabelling.

Problems Of Diagnostic Practice.


Changes over Time: Improvement and Deterioration.

Diagrams for Individual Cases and Diagrams for Disorders inGeneral.

The Variability of the Phenotype.

Chapter 8 A Causal Analysis Of Dyslexia.

The Dyslexia Debate: Is There Such a Thing as Dyslexia?.

The Discrepancy Definition of Specific Reading Disability.

Towards a Cognitive Definition.

An X-Type Causal Model of Dyslexia.

Biological Factors.

Cognitive Factors.

Difficulties of the Beginning Reader.

Associated and Secondary Problems.

General and Specific Deficits.

Competing Theories of Dyslexia.

Non-Biological Causes.

Other Biological Causes of Reading Failure.

Chapter 9 The Hyperkinetic Confusions.

Drugs As Diagnostic Refinement.

Types of Theory.

The Problem of Comorbidity – Conduct Disorder andADHD.

The Cognitive Level.

Sonuga-Barke’s Dual Pathway Model.

Chapter 10 Theories of Conduct Disorder.

Violence Inhibition Mechanism (VIM) Model.

The Social Information Processing Model for AggressiveChildren.

Coercive Parenting Model of Patterson.

The Theory of Life-Course Persistent Antisocial Behaviour.

Chapter 11 Tying in Biology.

Relations between the Cognitive and Biological Levels.

Equivalence: Brain to Cognition.

Causal Influences from Cognition to Brain.

Genes and Cause – the End of Behaviour Genetics.


Mouse (and Other) Models for Human Disorders.

Chapter 12 To Conclude.


Name Index.

Subject Index.


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