Understanding Developmental Disorders: A Causal Modelling Approach / Edition 1

Understanding Developmental Disorders: A Causal Modelling Approach / Edition 1

by John Morton
     
 

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ISBN-10: 063118757X

ISBN-13: 9780631187578

Pub. Date: 01/24/2005

Publisher: Wiley

This long-awaited and ground-breaking book from cognitive scientist John Morton helps to clarify the nature of developmental disorders. It challenges the basis of standard behaviourally based diagnostic practice, showing how the role of biology and cognition is crucial to understanding the underlying nature of these disorders. It also sets out a clear method for

Overview

This long-awaited and ground-breaking book from cognitive scientist John Morton helps to clarify the nature of developmental disorders. It challenges the basis of standard behaviourally based diagnostic practice, showing how the role of biology and cognition is crucial to understanding the underlying nature of these disorders. It also sets out a clear method for assessing and comparing the many alternative theories.

An understanding of developmental disorders depends on being able to address the issue of cause and on making the link between disorder and normal process. These were the driving forces behind the emergence of the causal modelling methodology at the Cognitive Development Unit in London by the author and his colleague Uta Frith. John Morton elucidates this method and uses it ruthlessly to compare different theories of particular developmental disorders and to pinpoint their weaknesses. The result is a book that will have a profound impact on research and thinking in the fields of psychology, neuroscience and medicine.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780631187578
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
01/24/2005
Pages:
320
Product dimensions:
6.24(w) x 9.31(h) x 1.15(d)

Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgementsviii
Chapter 1Introducing Cause1
Cause and public issues1
Cause and individual events: 'Why did Romeo die?'6
Some more reasons for not looking at individual cases9
The need for a framework for thinking in10
Creating a tool: the problem of notation14
An example of the limits of language15
An invitation to consider diagrams as a tool18
A tool for representing causal relationships18
Chapter 2Introducing Cognition20
One thing I do want you to believe20
Reductionism22
Can we rely on behaviour?24
The IQ example: a note of caution27
Why cause needs cognition29
Chapter 3Representing Causal Relationships: Technical and Formal Considerations34
Categorizing facts34
The causal notation38
Starting a causal model for autism41
Complications46
Some easy stuff on cause and correlation51
Other notations54
Chapter 4Autism: How Causal Modelling Started67
The biological origin of autism74
The role of cognition in defining autism81
What is mentalizing?86
The non-social features of autism: how to diagram ideas on weak central coherence in autism89
Summary92
Chapter 5The What and the How98
Ground rules of causal modelling99
Chapter 6Competing Causal Accounts of Autism106
Representing the effects of environmental factors107
Cognitive theories of autism112
Chapter 7The Problem of Diagnosis133
Diagnosis and cause: relying on behaviour134
The Spanish Inquisition example: the dangers of labelling135
Problems of diagnostic practice140
Variability148
Changes over time: improvement and deterioration152
The variability of the phenotype153
On co-morbidity and the question of residual normality158
To summarize160
Chapter 8A Causal Analysis of Dyslexia161
The dyslexia debate: Is there such a thing as dyslexia?161
The discrepancy definition of specific reading disability164
Towards a cognitive definition166
An X-type causal model of dyslexia168
Competing theories of dyslexia176
Non-biological causes195
Other biological causes of reading failure199
How do we sort among the options?200
The relationship between acquired and developmental dyslexia204
A theoretical update204
Chapter 9The Hyperkinetic Confusions208
Drugs as diagnostic refinement212
Types of theory216
The problem of co-morbidity: conduct disorder and ADHD218
The cognitive level219
Sonuga-Barke's dual pathway model223
Summary226
Chapter 10Theories of Conduct Disorder227
The violence inhibition mechanism (VIM) model228
The social information processing model for aggressive children231
The coercive parenting model of Patterson235
The theory of life-course persistent antisocial behaviour236
What does the application of the framework tell us about the theories?244
Chapter 11Tying in Biology247
Relations between the cognitive and biological levels247
Equivalence: brain to cognition251
Causal influences from cognition to brain253
Genes and cause: the end of behaviour genetics255
Endophenotypes264
Mouse (and other) models for human disorders266
Chapter 12To Conclude270
References273
Name Index292
Subject Index296

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