Understanding Electric Power Systems: An Overview of the Technology, the Marketplace, and Government Regulation [NOOK Book]

Overview

Technological advances and changes in government policy and regulation have altered the electric power industry in recent years and will continue to impact it for quite some time. Fully updated with the latest changes to regulation, structure, and technology, this new edition of Understanding Electric Power Systems offers a real-world view of the industry, explaining how it operates, how it is structured, and how electricity is regulated and priced. It includes extensive references for the reader and will be ...
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Understanding Electric Power Systems: An Overview of the Technology, the Marketplace, and Government Regulation

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Overview

Technological advances and changes in government policy and regulation have altered the electric power industry in recent years and will continue to impact it for quite some time. Fully updated with the latest changes to regulation, structure, and technology, this new edition of Understanding Electric Power Systems offers a real-world view of the industry, explaining how it operates, how it is structured, and how electricity is regulated and priced. It includes extensive references for the reader and will be especially useful to lawyers, government officials, regulators, engineers, and students, as well as the general public. The book explains the physical functioning of electric power systems, the electric power business in today's environment, and the related institutions, including recent changes in the roles of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the North American Reliability Company. Significant changes that are affecting the industry are covered in this new edition, including:
  • The expanded role of the federal government in the planning and operation of the nation's electric utilities
  • New energy laws and a large number of FERC regulations implementing these laws
  • Concerns over global warming and potential impacts on the electric industry
  • Pressures for expansion of the electric grid and the implementation of "smart-grid" technologies
  • The growing importance of various energy-storage technologies and renewable energy sources
  • New nuclear generation technologies
  • The 2009 economic stimulus package
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Product Details

Meet the Author

JACK CASAZZA is an electrical engineer with wide experience in the electric power profession as an executive, researcher, economist, and consultant. He has served as vice president in a major utility responsible for electric and gas planning and research, as a member of the Board of directors of the Georgia System Operating Co., and as chairman of the U.S. Technical Committee of CIGRE. Casazza is the author of six books on electric power policy and technology and founded the American Education Institute. An IEEE Life Fellow, he received the Halperin Award for his contributions to the development of the national transmission system.

FRANK DELEA is retired from Consolidated Edison Company, where he had a wide range of assignments giving him insight into planning, operational, financial, organizational, and legal issues. He was the company's chief electric planning engineer, its chief forecast engineer, its first project manager for rate cases, and a corporate planning director. He is an IEEE Senior Member. Since his retirement, Delea has conducted many short courses in technical, business, and regulatory issues relating to electric power systems for non-engineers.

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition xv

Acknowledgments xix

CHAPTER 1 Benefits of Electric Power and a History of the Electric Power Industry 1

1.1 Societal Benefits of Electricity 1

1.2 Origin of the Industry 2

1.3 The Development of the National Electric Power Grid 5

1.4 “The Golden Age” 8

1.5 Global Warming Crisis and Concerns about Carbon Emissions 13

1.6 Restructuring, Competition, and the Industry Ownership Structure 13

CHAPTER 2 The Electric Power System 15

2.1 The Customers 16

2.2 Sources of the Electric Energy—Generation 17

2.3 The Delivery System 20

CHAPTER 3 Basic Electric Power Concepts 27

3.1 Electric Energy 28

3.2 Concepts Relating to the Flow of Electricity 30

3.3 Characteristics of AC Systems 34

3.4 Ohm’s Law for Alternating Current 38

3.5 Power in Alternating Current Circuits 39

3.6 Power Flow 43

3.7 Stability 44

CHAPTER 4 Electric Energy Consumption 49

4.1 End Uses for Electricity 49

4.2 Customer Classes 50

4.3 Rate Classes 51

4.4 Demand and Energy 51

4.5 System Load 55

4.6 Reactive Load 59

4.7 Losses and Unaccounted-For Energy in the Delivery System 59

4.8 Forecasts 61

CHAPTER 5 Electric Power Generation and Concerns About Greenhouse Gases 65

5.1 Generation’s Role 65

5.2 Types of Generation 66

5.3 Thermal Conversion: Using Fuel as the Energy Resource 69

5.4 Thermal Conversion: Nonfuel Heat Sources 74

5.5 Mechanical Energy Conversion 75

5.6 Renewable Technologies and Greenhouse Gas Emissions 79

5.7 Characteristics of Generating Plants 84

5.8 Capital Cost of Generation 90

5.9 Generator Life Extension 91

5.10 The Technology of Generation 91

5.11 System Needs and Evaluation of Intermittent Resources 93

CHAPTER 6 The Technology of the Electric Transmission System 97

6.1 Components 97

6.2 HVAC 98

6.3 Substations 102

6.4 HVDC 108

6.5 Advantages of AC over DC Operation 110

6.5 Knowledge Required of Transmission Systems 113

CHAPTER 7 Distribution 115

7.1 Function of Distribution 115

7.2 Primary Distribution Feeders 116

7.3 Distribution Capacity 118

7.4 Losses 119

7.5 Distribution Facility Ratings 119

7.6 Metering 120

7.7 Control of Distribution Voltages 120

7.8 Distribution System Reliability 123

7.10 Quality of Service 124

7.11 Design of Distribution Systems 125

7.12 Distributed Generation 125

7.13 Operation of Distribution Systems 126

7.14 Smart Grids and Microgrids 127

CHAPTER 8 Energy Storage and Other New Technologies 129

8.1 Energy Storage 131

8.2 Energy Storage Concepts and Technologies 133

8.3 Smart Grid 142

8.4 New Nuclear Plant Designs 146

8.5 Carbon Sequestration and Clean Coal Technologies 150

8.6 Superconductors 153

CHAPTER 9 Reliability 155

9.1 Causes of Outages 155

9.2 Costs of Power Outages 157

9.3 Ways to Measure Reliability 158

9.4 Planning and Operating a Reliable and Adequate Power System 159

9.5 Summary 166

CHAPTER 10 The Physical Network: The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and Its Standards 167

10.1 NERC as Electric Reliability Organization 169

10.2 NERC Standards 171

10.3 Development of Standards 176

CHAPTER 11 The Physical Network: Operation of the Electric Bulk Power 181

11.1 Balancing Authorities 181

11.2 Reliability Coordinators 184

11.3 Transmission Operators 186

11.4 Voltage and Reactive Control 191

11.5 Emergencies 192

11.6 Information Exchange 194

CHAPTER 12 The Physical Network: Planning of the Electric Bulk Power System 197

12.1 Planning Standards 198

12.2 Generation Planning 198

12.3 Transmission Planning 200

12.4 Least Cost Planning 205

12.5 The New Planning Environment 205

CHAPTER 13 The Regulatory Network: Legislation 213

13.1 Pricing and Regulation 213

13.2 Federal Legislation 214

13.3 Federal Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) 214

13.4 Federal Power Act 216

13.5 Other 1930 Federal Laws 219

13.6 Department of Energy Organization Act 219

13.7 Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) 220

13.8 Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct02) 222

13.9 The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05) 224

13.10 The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 227

13.11 Environmental Laws 227

13.12 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 230

CHAPTER 14 The Regulatory Network: The Regulators 231

14.1 The Regulators 231

CHAPTER 15 The Information, Communication, and Control Network and Security 253

15.1 Smart Grid 253

15.2 Financial and Business Operations 254

15.3 System Operations 255

15.4 Distribution Operations 255

15.5 Cyber Security 256

15.6 Nuclear Plant Security 259

CHAPTER 16 The Fuel and Energy Network 261

16.1 Resource Procurement 264

16.2 Fuel Transportation 265

16.3 Fuel Diversity 266

16.4 Fossil Fuels Used 267

16.5 Renewable Energy 269

16.6 Fuel Purchasing 271

16.7 Emission Rights 271

CHAPTER 17 The Business Network: Market Participants 273

17.1 Investment and Cost Recovery 273

17.2 The Changing Industry Structure 274

17.3 New Structures 279

17.4 New Corporate Ownership 281

CHAPTER 18 The Money Network: Wholesale Markets 285

18.1 The Energy Markets 286

18.2 Transmission 291

18.3 Customer Late Issues 294

18.4 Market versus Operational Control 298

18.5 Market Power Issues 298

18.6 The Future 299

CHAPTER 19 The Professional and Industry Organizations 301

19.1 The Professional Organizations 301

19.2 Industry Associations 304

19.3 Public Interest Groups 308

19.4 Research Organizations 309

Index 313

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