Understanding Human Development / Edition 2

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Overview

MyDevelopmentLab with MyVirtualChild is a learning and assessment tool that allows instructors to assess student performance and adapt course content without investing a lot of additional time or resources.

Students benefit from this easy-to-use site with or without their instructor’s involvement. Students can test themselves on key content, track their progress, and utilize individually tailored study plan activities, including an e-book, simulations, newsfeeds, videos, and application exercises.

MyDevelopmentLab also provides students the opportunity to raise a virtual child from birth to age 18 and monitor the effects of specific parenting decisions over time.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205753079
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 11/2/2009
  • Series: MyDevelopmentLab Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 600
  • Sales rank: 745,793
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

BRIEF CONTENTS

Preface

Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Development

Chapter 2 Heredity and Environment

Chapter 3 Prenatal Development and Childbirth

Chapter 4 Infancy and Toddlerhood: Physical, Cognitive, and Language Development

Chapter 5 Infancy and Toddlerhood: Personality and Sociocultural Development

Chapter 6 Early Childhood: Physical, Cognitive, and Language Development

Chapter 7 Early Childhood: Personality and Sociocultural Development

Chapter 8 Middle Childhood: Physical and Cognitive Development

Chapter 9 Middle Childhood: Personality and Sociocultural Development

Chapter 10 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development

Chapter 11 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: Personality and Sociocultural Development

Chapter 12 Young Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development

Chapter 13 Young Adulthood: Personality and Sociocultural Development

Chapter 14 Middle Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development

Chapter 15 Middle Adulthood: Personality and Sociocultural Development

Chapter 16 Older Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development

Chapter 17 Older Adulthood: Personality and Sociocultural Development

Chapter 18 Death and Dying

Answers to Review the Facts

Glossary

Bibliography

Photo Credits

Name Index

Subject Index

DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1:

Introduction to Human Development, 1

Introduction to Development, 2

Lifespan Development, 2

Guiding Themes in Human Development, 4

The Nature of Human Development, 4

Biology and Environment, 4

The Sociocultural Context, 5

Try This!: Exploring Attitudes About Child Rearing, 6

Changing Perspectives: Children and War, 7

The Domains of Human Development, 8

Theoretical Frameworks for Human Development, 9

The Role of Theory, 9

Biological Views of Human Development, 10

Psychodynamic Views of Human Development, 11

Behavioral Views of Human Development, 14

Cognitive Views of Human Development, 16

Integrating Theoretical Approaches, 18

The Scientific Approach to the Study of Human Development, 20

Descriptive Methods, 21

Studying Development Across Time, 23

Current Issues: Fragile Families and Child Well-Being, 24

Correlation as a Descriptive Tool, 25

Experimental Approaches: The Study of Cause and Effect, 26

Summary of Research Methods, 27

Ethics in Developmental Research, 28

Development in Context, 30

Chapter Summary, 30

Key Terms, 32

Chapter 2:

Heredity and Environment, 33

Molecular Genetics, 34

Human Cells, 34

DNA, 35

Genes, 36

Protein Synthesis, 37

Genes, Chromosomes, and Cell Division, 37

Cell Division and Reproduction, 37

From Genotype to Phenotype, 38

The Variation of Traits Among Individuals, 40

Genetic and Chromosomal Disorders, 41

Sex-Linked Disorders, 42

Autosomal Disorders, 43

Genetic Counseling, 45

Advances in Genetic Research and Treatment, 45

Behavior Genetics, 46

Changing Perspectives: Genetic Engineering and Cloning, 47

Adoption Studies, 47

Twin Studies, 48

Try This!: Exploring the Basis of Personality, 49

Environmental Influences and Contexts, 49

Basic Processes That Affect Behavior, 49

Conditioning, Behavior Modification, and Life, 51

Social Learning and the Evolving Self-Concept, 52

Environment in a Broader Context: Family and Culture, 52

Family Systems, 52

The Family as Transmitter of Culture, 53

Current Issues: The New Baby and the Extended Family System, 54

Sociocultural Influences on Development Across the Lifespan, 54

Chapter Summary, 57

Key Terms, 59

Chapter 3:

Prenatal Development and Childbirth, 60

Prenatal Growth and Development, 61

Trimesters and Periods, 61

Conception and the Germinal Period, 61

The Embryonic Period, 63

The Fetal Period, 64

Developmental Trends, 67

Prenatal Environmental Influences, 67

Maternal Age, 67

Maternal Health and Nutrition, 68

Prenatal Health Care, 68

Critical Periods in Prenatal Development, 69

Teratogens and Their Effects, 70

Childbirth, 75

Stages of Childbirth, 75

Changing Perspectives: Nurse—Family Partnerships: An Early Intervention Program That Works, 76

Approaches to Childbirth, 76

Try This!: Birthing Practices: Yesterday and Today, 78

Advances in Technology, 78

Complications in Childbirth, 80

The Evolving Family, 82

The Transition to Parenthood, 82

Current Issues: Kangaroo Care for Low-Birth-Weight Infants: An Experimental Approach Being Tried in Countries Around the World, 83

The Arrival of the Neonate, 84

Chapter Summary, 87

Key Terms, 89

Chapter 4:

Infancy and Toddlerhood: Physical, Cognitive, and Language Development, 90

The Developing Brain, 91

The Neonatal Period, 92

States of Arousal, 93

Learning and Habituation, 93

Neonatal Assessment, 94

Physical and Motor Development, 95

Cultural Influences on Maturation, 95

An Overview of Physical and Motor Development: The First 2 Years, 95

Changing Perspectives: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Shaken Baby Syndrome, 98

Nutrition and Malnutrition, 99

Try This!: Attitudes About Breastfeeding, 103

Sensory and Perceptual Development, 103

Vision and Visual Perception, 103

Hearing and Auditory Perception, 106

Taste, Smell, and Touch, 106

Sensory Integration, 106

Cognitive Development, 107

Perceptual Organization and Categories, 107

Piaget’s Concept of Schemes, 107

The Sensorimotor Period, 108

Evaluating Piaget’s View, 110

Language Development, 111

The Structure and Function of Language, 111

Language Development in the First Year, 112

Words and Sentences, 113

The Language Explosion, 114

Telegraphic Speech and Early Grammar, 114

Theories of Language Development, 114

Current Issues: Cats, Horses and Tight Fits–Is Language Involved in Category Formation?, 116

Cultural Aspects of Language Development, 116

Chapter Summary, 117

Key Terms, 119

Chapter 5:

Infancy and Toddlerhood: Personality and Sociocultural Development, 120

The Foundations of Personality and Social Development, 121

Emotional Development, 121

Temperament, 122

The Development of Trust, 124

Feeding and Comforting, 124

Attachment, 125

The Role of Culture in Attachment, 125

Studying Infant and Toddler Attachment, 126

Try This!: Replicating the Strange Situation, 127

The Effects of Attachment, 127

Explaining Attachment, 128

The Relationship Between Attachment and Trust, 130

Separating from the Caregiver, 130

Social Referencing and Culture, 131

The Development of Autonomy, 131

The Development of Prosocial Behavior, 132

The Development of the Self, 133

Attachment and Separation, 133

The Family System: A Broader Context, 134

Fathers, 134

Changing Perspectives: Fatherhood in the Changing American Family–What Matters?, 135

Other Family Members as Caregivers, 136

The Social Ecology of Child Care, 137

Current Issues: Infant and Toddler Child Care, 138

Infants and Toddlers With Special Needs, 139

Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, 140

Infants and Toddlers With Hearing Impairments, 140

Infants and Toddlers With Severe Disabilities, 141

When Parenting Goes Awry: Abuse and Neglect, 141

Chapter Summary, 143

Key Terms, 145

Chapter 6:

Early Childhood: Physical, Cognitive, and Language Development, 146

Physical Development, 147

Changes in the Body, 147

Brain Development, 148

Human Development: An Interactive and Individual Approach, 150

Motor Skills Development, 150

Gross Motor Skills, 150

Fine Motor Skills, 151

Learning and Motor Skills, 152

Cognitive Development, 153

An Overview of Preoperational Thinking, 153

Preoperational Substages and Thought, 154

Current Issues: A Theory of Mind, 155

Limitations of Preoperational Thinking, 156

Conservation, 157

Evaluating Piaget’s Theory, 158

Beyond Piaget: Social Perspectives, 158

The Role of Memory, 159

Language Development, 161

Words and Concepts, 161

Expanding Grammar, 161

Mastering the Subtleties of Speech, 162

The Influence of Parents’ Language Use, 163

Multicultural Aspects of Language Development, 164

Play and Learning, 165

Play and Cognitive Development, 165

Changing Perspectives: Bilingual Kindergarten and Play, 166

Try This!: Watching Young Children Play, 168

Chapter Summary, 169

Key Terms, 170

Chapter 7:

Early Childhood: Personality and Sociocultural Development, 171

Coping with Feelings and Emotions, 173

Fear and Anxiety, 173

Emotional Regulation, 175

Aggression and Prosocial Behavior, 177

Aggression, 177

Changing Perspectives: Electronic Media: Is It Changing the Way That Children Grow Up?, 179

Prosocial Behavior, 180

Try This!: A Child’s Choice in Media Programming, 181

Developmental Conflicts, 182

Initiative Versus Guilt, 182

Peers, Play, and the Development of Social Competence, 183

The Role of Imaginary Companions, 183

Cultural Variations in Play, 184

Social Competence and the Development of Social Skills, 185

Current Issues: One Pathway to Social Competence, 186

Understanding Self and Others, 186

Social Concepts and Rules, 186

Self-Concept, 187

Self and Gender, 188

Family Dynamics, 191

Parenting Styles, 191

Discipline and Self-Control, 193

Sibling Dynamics, 194

Child Maltreatment: Abuse and Neglect, 195

Chapter Summary, 198

Key Terms, 201

Chapter 8:

Middle Childhood: Physical and Cognitive Development, 202

Physical and Motor Development, 203

Physical Growth and Change, 203

Internal Changes, 204

Motor Skills Development, 204

Health, Fitness, and Accidents, 205

Current Issues: Obesity in Childhood–An Outcome of Our Changing Lifestyle?, 208

Cognitive Development, 210

Piaget and Concrete Operational Thinking, 210

Memory and Metacognition, 212

Language and Literacy Development, 213

Individual Differences in Intelligence, 214

Try This!: Exploring Your Concept of Intelligence, 217

Learning and Thinking in School, 218

New Demands and Expectations, 218

Developing Competent Learners and Critical Thinkers, 219

Success in School, 220

Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 222

Intellectual Disabilities, 223

Learning Disorders, 224

Changing Perspectives: Early Experience–Do Adverse Environments Cause Permanent Effects?, 225

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, 227

Chapter Summary, 228

Key Terms, 230

Chapter 9:

Middle Childhood: Personality and Sociocultural Development, 231

Personality Development in an Expanding Social World, 232

Three Perspectives on Middle Childhood, 232

Self-Concept, 233

Industry Versus Inferiority, 233

Self-Esteem, 233

Social Knowledge and Reasoning, 234

The Development of Social Cognition, 235

The Development of Morality, 235

Peer Relationships, 238

Functions of Friendship, 238

Developmental Patterns in Friendship, 239

Peer Groups, 240

Current Issues: Friends and Enemies, Bullies and Victims–The Social Life of School, 241

In-Groups, Out-Groups, and Prejudice, 242

Family Influences in Middle Childhood, 245

Parent—Child Interactions and Relationships, 245

The Changing Nature of the Family, 246

Changing Perspectives: Families Coping in Difficult Circumstances, 249

Try This!: The Impact of Divorce on Children, 250

Chapter Summary, 251

Key Terms, 253

Chapter 10:

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development, 254

Adolescent Development in a Cultural and Historical Context, 255

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood in the United States Today, 256

Physical Development and Adaptation, 258

Physical Growth and Change, 258

Puberty, 259

Current Issues: Diet and Exercise–Building a Healthy Lifestyle or an Eating Disorder?, 260

Body Image and Adjustment, 262

Gender Identity and Sexual Practices, 264

Six Decades of Changes in Sexual Practices, 264

Factors That Influence Early Sexual Relationships, 265

Consequences of Adolescent Sexual Behavior, 266

Cognitive Changes in Adolescence, 268

Brain Development in Adolescence, 268

Try This!: Exploring the Effects of Early Parenting, 269

Piaget’s Period of Formal Operations, 270

The Scope and Content of Adolescent Thought, 272

Changing Perspectives: How Adolescents Around the World Spend Their Time, 273

Chapter Summary, 276

Key Terms, 278

Chapter 11:

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: Personality and Sociocultural Development, 279

Developmental Tasks of Adolescence, 281

Achieving Autonomy, 281

Forming an Identity, 282

Identity Formation, Culture, and Context, 284

Current Issues: Ethnic Identity–A Key Component of Self-Definition, 285

Family Dynamics, 286

Intergenerational Communication, 286

Changing Perspectives: Family Obligation and Assistance During Adolescence, 288

Peer Relationships During Adolescence, 289

Social Comparison, 289

Cliques and Crowds, 290

Dating, 291

Peers and Parents: A Clash of Cultures, 291

Risk and Resilience in Adolescence, 292

Risk Taking, 292

The Use of Tobacco, Alcohol, Marijuana, and Other Drugs, 293

Delinquency, 296

Sexual Abuse of Adolescents, 296

Stress, Depression, and Coping, 298

Depression, 298

Risk Factors for Psychological Problems, 300

Try This!: Taking a Look at Adolescent Depression, 301

Protective Factors and Coping Responses, 302

Chapter Summary, 303

Key Terms, 305

Chapter 12:

Young Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development, 306

Perspectives on Adult Development, 308

Age Clocks and Social Norms, 308

Contextual Paradigms, 309

General Physical Development, 309

Strength and Stamina, 309

Changing Perspectives: History, Culture, and the Information Age, 310

Fitness and Health, 311

Current Issues: The Changing Face of HIV/AIDS, 314

Sex and Sexuality, 315

Fertility, 315

Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 315

Sexual Attitudes and Behavior, 316

Sexual Identity and Sexual Orientation, 317

Cognitive Development in Adulthood, 320

Beyond Formal Operations, 320

Postformal Thought, 321

Try This!: Exploring Postformal Thought, 322

Emotional Intelligence, 322

Schaie’s Stages of Adult Thinking, 323

Frameworks for Understanding Adult Development, 324

Stages and Contexts, 324

Havighurst’s Developmental Tasks, 325

Erikson’s Theory of Development, 325

Levinson’s Seasons of a Man’s Life, 325

The Limitations of Normative Models, 327

Gould’s Transformations in Early Adulthood, 327

A Closing Comment, 328

Chapter Summary, 329

Key Terms, 331

Chapter 13:

Young Adulthood: Personality and Sociocultural Development, 332

Self, Family, and Work, 333

The Personal Self, 333

Self as Family Member, 335

Self as Worker, 335

Forming Close Relationships, 336

Adult Friendships, 337

Couple Formation and Development, 337

Marriage, 338

Cohabitation, 339

Gay and Lesbian Couples, 339

Staying Single, 340

Changing Perspectives: Living Together or Living Alone, 341

The Family Life Cycle and Adult Development, 342

The Family Life Cycle, 342

The Transition to Parenthood, 342

Coping with Children’s Developmental Stages, 344

Single Parenthood, 345

The Occupational Cycle, 347

Stages of Occupational Life, 347

Gaining a Place in the Workforce, 348

Careers and Career Choices, 348

Occupational Choice and Preparation, 349

Gender and Ethnicity, 350

Work and Gender, 351

Changes in Women’s Work Patterns, 351

The Many Meanings of Work, 351

Try This!: Exploring the Type of Career Best Matched to You, 352

The Role of Women in Careers, 352

The Dynamics of Dual-Earner Couples, 353

Current Issues: Juggling Work and Family Roles–The Special Challenge for Low-Income, Dual-Career Couples, 354

Chapter Summary, 356

Key Terms, 358

Chapter 14:

Middle Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development, 359

Development in Middle Adulthood, 360

Prime Time or the Beginning of the End?, 360

Midlife Crisis: Is It Real?, 361

Perceptions and Realities at Midlife, 362

Try This!: Just What Is Middle Age?, 363

Physical Continuity and Change, 363

Changes in Capabilities, 364

The Climacteric, 365

Sexuality in the Middle Years, 367

Disease and Health, 368

The Cumulative Effects of Health Habits, 370

Stress and Health, 371

Ethnicity, Poverty, and Health, 372

Current Issues: Health and Social Issues–Why Are Some Groups at Risk?, 373

Cognitive Continuity and Change, 374

Fluid Versus Crystallized Intelligence, 374

Experience and Expertise, 376

Changing Perspectives: Retraining for Today’s Technological Jobs, 377

Cognitive Skills in the Workplace, 377

Chapter Summary, 379

Key Terms, 380

Chapter 15:

Middle Adulthood: Personality and Sociocultural Development, 381

Personality Continuity and Change, 383

The Tasks of Middle Adulthood, 383

Personal Reactions to Middle Adulthood, 384

Family and Friends: Interpersonal Contexts, 386

The Generation That Runs Things, 386

Relationships with Adult Children, 386

Current Issues: Studying Generativity in African American and White U.S. Families, 387

Relationships with Aging Parents, 388

Becoming a Grandparent, 390

Try This!: What Makes a Great Grandparent?, 391

Friendship: A Lifelong Perspective, 391

The Changing Family, 392

Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage, 392

Blended Families, 395

Changing Perspectives: Blended Families–Themes and Variations, 396

Occupational Continuity and Change, 397

Job Change and Stress, 398

Continuity and Change in the Structure of Personality, 400

The Five-Factor Model, 400

Stability or Change?, 401

Chapter Summary, 402

Key Terms, 404

Chapter 16:

Older Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development, 405

Aging Today, 406

Ageism and Stereotypes, 406

Four Decades of Later Life, 408

The Physical Aspects of Aging, 410

The Changing Body, 411

Health, Disease, and Nutrition, 414

Changing Perspectives: Diabetes–Will Type 2 Diabetes Be the New Lifestyle Disease Epidemic?, 416

The Causes of Aging, 419

Theories of Aging, 419

Cognitive Changes in Advanced Age, 420

Understanding Various Aspects of Cognition, 420

Cognitive Decline, 424

Current Issues: Wisdom–Cross-Cultural or Culture Specific?, 425

Try This!: Exploring Alzheimer’s Disease, 428

Compensating for an Aging Mind, 429

Chapter Summary, 430

Key Terms, 432

Chapter 17:

Older Adulthood: Personality and Sociocultural Development, 433

Personality and Aging, 434

Developmental Tasks in Older Adulthood, 434

Emotional Development in Older Adulthood, 436

Continuity and Change in Older Adulthood, 436

Current Issues: Psychological Well-Being in Later Adulthood, 438

Successful Aging, 439

Retirement: A Major Change in Status, 440

Adjusting to Retirement, 441

Retirement Options, 442

Family and Friends: Interpersonal Contexts, 444

When Parenting Is Over, 444

Try This!: Exploring the Dimensions of Grandparenting, 445

Caring for an Ill Spouse, 445

Widows and Widowers, 446

U.S. Social Policy and Older Adulthood, 448

The Demographics of Aging, 448

Lifestyle Options for Older Adults, 450

Changing Perspectives: Assisted Living–The In-Between Choice for Frail, Older Adults, 452

Goals for the Care of Older Adults, 452

Chapter Summary, 454

Key Terms, 455

Chapter 18:

Death and Dying, 456

Thoughts and Fears of Death, 457

Denial of Death, 457

Reactions to Death, 458

Managing the Anxiety Associated with One’s Own Death, 459

Current Issues: Searching for Meaning in Natural Disasters, Accidents, Terrorism, and Personal Tragedies, 459

Confronting One’s Own Death, 460

Death as the Final Developmental Task, 461

Stages of Adjustment, 461

Coping with Terminal Illness, 462

Alternative Trajectories, 462

The Search for a Humane Death, 464

Hospice, 464

Try This!: Exploring the Dimensions of Hospice Care, 465

The Right to Die, 465

Grief and Bereavement, 469

Grieving, 469

Bereavement in Cross-Cultural Perspective, 471

Rituals and Customs, 471

The Death of a Child, 472

Grieving When a Child Dies, 472

Changing Perspectives: Humane End-of-Life Care for Children Who Are Dying and for Their Families, 473

Completing the Life Cycle, 474

Chapter Summary, 475

Key Terms, 476

Answers to Review the Facts, 477

Glossary, 485

References, 495

Photo Credits, 545

Name Index, 547

Subject Index, 561

ABOUT THIS TITLE - DESCRIPTION

For undergraduate courses in Lifespan Development, Human Development An interdisciplinary approach with an emphasis on culture and family using an interdisciplinary approach which emphasizes culture and family, Understanding Human Development challenges students to understand development from a broader perspective. Students draw on their own experiences as they weigh the research and ideas presented in the text.

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