Understanding Intercultural Communication / Edition 1

Understanding Intercultural Communication / Edition 1

by Stella Ting-Toomey, Leeva C. Chung
     
 


Written in a conversational style, this book introduces students to the foundations of intercultural communication, a vibrant discipline within the field. Authors Stella Ting-Toomey and Leeva Chung take a multicontextual, inclusive approach that balances international and intercultural communication issues against U.S. domestic diversity issues. In addition to… See more details below

Overview


Written in a conversational style, this book introduces students to the foundations of intercultural communication, a vibrant discipline within the field. Authors Stella Ting-Toomey and Leeva Chung take a multicontextual, inclusive approach that balances international and intercultural communication issues against U.S. domestic diversity issues. In addition to emphasizing a value-oriented perspective on intercultural encounters, the text contains a robust ethical chapter, complete with specific guidelines that will help students become ethical intercultural communicators.

By integrating current empirical research with lively intercultural examples, the authors ask thought-provoking questions and pose ethical dilemmas for students to ponder. The text offers a sprawling treatment of such topics as ethnic and cultural identity change, culture shock and intercultural adjustment, romantic relationships and raising bicultural children, global identity challenges, and decision-making choices in intercultural ethics.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780195330069
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date:
09/29/2004
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
424
Product dimensions:
10.00(w) x 6.90(h) x 0.80(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexi
Acknowledgmentsxiv
About the Authorsxvii
1Why Study Intercultural Communication?1
Practical Reasons to Study Intercultural Communication3
Adapting to Global and Domestic Workforce Diversity3
Improving Multicultural Health Care Communication7
Engaging in Creative Problem Solving9
Enhancing Intercultural Relationship Satisfaction10
Deepening Self-Awareness12
Fostering Global and Intrapersonal Peace13
Intercultural Communication Flexibility15
Knowledge, Attitude, and Skills16
Flexible Intercultural Communication: Four Criteria17
Mastering Intercultural Communication Flexibility19
A Staircase Model19
Communicating Flexibly21
2What Is Intercultural Communication?25
Culture: A Learned Meaning System27
Surface-Level Culture: Popular Culture28
Intermediate-Level Culture: Symbols, Meanings, and Norms31
Deep-Level Culture: Traditions, Beliefs, and Values33
Understanding Intercultural Communication: A Process Model37
Intercultural Communication Process: Overall Characteristics39
Intercultural Communication: Meaning Characteristics41
Practicing Intercultural Process Thinking43
Process Consciousness: Underlying Principles43
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints48
3What Are the Essential Cultural Value Patterns?51
Functions of Cultural Values53
Analyzing Cultural Values54
Identity Meaning Function54
Explanatory Function55
Boundary Regulation Function55
Adaptational Function56
Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions56
Discovering Cultural Values57
Identity: Individualism-Collectivism Value Pattern59
Power: Small-Large Power Distance Value Pattern63
Uncertainty: Weak-Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Value Pattern64
Sex Roles: Feminine-Masculine Value Pattern66
Additional Value Orientation Patterns67
Value Orientations: Background Information68
Meaning: Doing-Being Activity Value Orientation70
Destiny: Controlling-Yielding People-Nature Value Orientation71
Time: Future-Past Temporal Value Orientation73
Space: Privacy-Communal Spatial Value Orientation74
Individual Socialization Development75
Independent Versus Interdependent Self-Construal77
Horizontal Versus Vertical Self-Construal77
Internal Versus External Locus of Control79
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints81
4What Are the Keys to Understanding Cultural and Ethnic Identities?83
Family and Gender Socialization85
Family Socialization and Interaction Patterns87
Gender Socialization and Interaction Patterns90
Cultural-Ethnic Identity Formation91
Cultural Identity Conceptualization91
Ethnic Identity Conceptualization94
Group Membership: Intercultural Boundary Crossing98
Defining Acculturation and Enculturation98
Social Identity101
Systems-Level Factors102
Individual-Level Factors104
Interpersonal-Ethnic Media-Level Factors105
Ethnic-Cultural Identity Change Process107
Ethnic-Cultural Identity Typological Model107
Racial-Ethnic Identity Development Model108
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints110
5What Is Culture Shock?113
Understanding Culture Shock115
Culture Shock: Defining Characteristics116
Culture Shock: Pros and Cons118
Approaching Culture Shock: Underlying Factors118
Managing Culture Shock: Initial Tips122
Intercultural Adjustment: Developmental Patterns123
The U-Curve Adjustment Model126
The Revised W-Shaped Adjustment Model127
Culture Shock: Peaks and Valleys132
Reentry Culture Shock134
Reentry Culture Shock: Surprising Elements134
Resocialization: Different Returnees' Profiles135
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints136
6What Is the Relationship Between Language and Culture?139
Human Language: Distinctive Features141
Arbitrariness142
Abstractness143
Meaning-Centeredness144
Creativity145
Understanding Multiple Language Rules145
Phonological Rules147
Morphological Rules148
Syntactic Rules149
Semantic Rules149
Pragmatic Rules151
Understanding Diverse Language Functions153
The Cultural Worldview Function153
The Cognitive Formation Function154
The Social Reality Function156
The Group Identity Function158
The Social Change Function161
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints163
7What Are the Major Differences in Intercultural Verbal Styles?167
Intercultural Low-Context and High-Context Communication Framework169
Defining Low-Context and High-Context Communication169
Low-Context and High-Context Communication Examples172
Low-Context and High-Context VerbalStyle Comparisons175
Direct and Indirect Verbal Styles175
Complementary, Animated, and Understated Verbal Styles178
Informal and Formal Verbal Styles179
Beliefs Expressed in Talk and Silence181
Intercultural Conversation Process: Self-Disclosure182
Self-Disclosure: Verbal Revealment Versus Concealment182
Johari Window186
Intercultural Persuasion Process188
Linear Logic Versus Spiral Logic Persuasion188
Self-Credentialing and Self-Humbling Verbal Modes191
Face-Negotiation and Requesting Strategies193
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints194
8What Are the Different Ways to Communicate Nonverbally Across Cultures?197
The Importance of Nonverbal Communication199
What Is Nonverbal Communication?200
Actions or Words?201
One Code, Many Interpretations201
Verbal and Nonverbal Similarities202
Forms of Nonverbal Communication203
Artifacts and Clothing203
Paralanguage205
Facial Expressions206
Gestures210
Haptics212
Boundary Regulations214
Regulating Interpersonal Boundaries215
Environmental Boundaries217
Psychological Boundaries218
Regulating Time220
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints224
9What Causes Us to Hold Biases Against Outgroups?227
Through Our Lenses: Communication Filters230
Perception and Communication230
Ethnocentrism and Communication233
Stereotypes and Communication236
Stereotypes and Media238
Nearsighted Focus: Ingroup/Outgroup Membership Boundaries239
Us Versus Them239
Where Do I Fit In?241
Intergroup Attributions242
Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism244
Prejudiced Remarks...or Innocent Jokes?245
Prejudice: Explanations and Functions247
Discrimination and Practice248
Different Types of Racism251
Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination254
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints255
10What Are the Best Ways to Manage Intercultural Conflict?257
Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background Factors259
Culture-Based Conflict Lenses260
Intercultural Conflict Perceptions263
Intercultural Conflict Goal Issues265
Perceived Scarce Resources266
Intercultural Conflict Process Factors268
Defining Conflict Styles268
Cross-Cultural Conflict Styles274
Cross-Ethnic Conflict Styles and Facework276
Competent Intercultural Conflict Skills279
Facework Management280
Mindful Listening281
Cultural Empathy282
Mindful Reframing282
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints283
11What Are the Challenges in Developing an Intercultural-Intimate Relationship?287
Developing Intercultural-Intimate Relationships: Invisible Challenges289
Different Cultural-Ethnic Membership Values290
Different Expectations of Love290
Different Expectations of Autonomy-Connection Issues292
Communication Decoding Issues293
Intercultural-Intimate Relationship Attraction: Facilitating Factors296
Perceived Physical Attractiveness296
Perceived Similarity297
Self-Disclosure298
Ethnic Identity and Self-Concept299
Intercultural-Intimate Conflict: Major Obstacles300
Encountering Prejudice and Racism301
Countering Racism and Prejudice: Coping Strategies304
Raising Secure Bicultural Children305
Raising Bicultural-Biracial Children306
Helping Children to Develop a Secure Identity308
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints309
12What Are the Communication Issues Facing a Global Identity?311
The E.net Self: Local Versus Global Outlook313
Local Versus Global Identity313
Defining the Background of E.net'ers314
E.net'ers: Who Are They?315
The E.net Identity: Dialectical Challenges317
Spatial Zone Dialectics318
Temporal Zone Dialectics319
Identity Zone Dialectics320
Global Identities in Action321
The Lens of Television: Identity Imitation321
Rap and Hip-Hop Music: Identity Expression324
Fashion and Gadgets: Identity Construction328
Video: Identity Transformation330
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints331
13How Can We Become Ethical Intercultural Communicators?333
Comparing Different Ethical Positions335
Ethical Absolutism Position335
Ethical Relativism Position338
Ethical Universalism Position339
Meta-Ethics Contextualism Position339
Meta-Ethics: Procedures and Guidelines340
Identifying Key Meta-Ethics Concepts341
Meta-Ethical Decisions: Further Guidelines345
An Intercultural Discovery Path Model347
From Ethnocentrism to Ethnorelativism349
Becoming a Dynamic Global Leader352
In Conclusion353
References355
Glossary373
Author Index389
Subject Index393

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