Understanding Intercultural Communication / Edition 1

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Written in a conversational style, this book introduces students to the foundations of intercultural communication, a vibrant discipline within the field. Authors Stella Ting-Toomey and Leeva Chung take a multicontextual, inclusive approach that balances international and intercultural communication issues against U.S. domestic diversity issues. In addition to emphasizing a value-oriented perspective on intercultural encounters, the text contains a robust ethical chapter, complete with specific guidelines that will help students become ethical intercultural communicators.

By integrating current empirical research with lively intercultural examples, the authors ask thought-provoking questions and pose ethical dilemmas for students to ponder. The text offers a sprawling treatment of such topics as ethnic and cultural identity change, culture shock and intercultural adjustment, romantic relationships and raising bicultural children, global identity challenges, and decision-making choices in intercultural ethics.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"One of the best undergraduate textbooks in intercultural communication."--Kenneth C.C. Yang, University of Texas at El Paso

"Provides a good balance between the serious and fun aspects of studying intercultural communication. I particularly like the way the book has questions as chapter titles to introduce the more formal study of the field. The book provides more comprehensive coverage of the major concepts of intercultural communication than the competition."--Susan Opt, Salem College

"This is an excellent text when teaching large lecture sections. The concepts are designated within the text in a way that the students can pick them out and know what it is that they are expected to study for exams."--Marcella La Fever,California State Stanislaus

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780195330069
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • Publication date: 9/29/2004
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 424
  • Product dimensions: 10.00 (w) x 6.90 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Stella Ting-Toomey is Professor of Human Communication Studies at California State University, Fullerton.

Leeva C. Chung is Professor of Communication Studies at the University of San Diego.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xiv
About the Authors xvii
1 Why Study Intercultural Communication? 1
Practical Reasons to Study Intercultural Communication 3
Adapting to Global and Domestic Workforce Diversity 3
Improving Multicultural Health Care Communication 7
Engaging in Creative Problem Solving 9
Enhancing Intercultural Relationship Satisfaction 10
Deepening Self-Awareness 12
Fostering Global and Intrapersonal Peace 13
Intercultural Communication Flexibility 15
Knowledge, Attitude, and Skills 16
Flexible Intercultural Communication: Four Criteria 17
Mastering Intercultural Communication Flexibility 19
A Staircase Model 19
Communicating Flexibly 21
2 What Is Intercultural Communication? 25
Culture: A Learned Meaning System 27
Surface-Level Culture: Popular Culture 28
Intermediate-Level Culture: Symbols, Meanings, and Norms 31
Deep-Level Culture: Traditions, Beliefs, and Values 33
Understanding Intercultural Communication: A Process Model 37
Intercultural Communication Process: Overall Characteristics 39
Intercultural Communication: Meaning Characteristics 41
Practicing Intercultural Process Thinking 43
Process Consciousness: Underlying Principles 43
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints 48
3 What Are the Essential Cultural Value Patterns? 51
Functions of Cultural Values 53
Analyzing Cultural Values 54
Identity Meaning Function 54
Explanatory Function 55
Boundary Regulation Function 55
Adaptational Function 56
Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions 56
Discovering Cultural Values 57
Identity: Individualism-Collectivism Value Pattern 59
Power: Small-Large Power Distance Value Pattern 63
Uncertainty: Weak-Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Value Pattern 64
Sex Roles: Feminine-Masculine Value Pattern 66
Additional Value Orientation Patterns 67
Value Orientations: Background Information 68
Meaning: Doing-Being Activity Value Orientation 70
Destiny: Controlling-Yielding People-Nature Value Orientation 71
Time: Future-Past Temporal Value Orientation 73
Space: Privacy-Communal Spatial Value Orientation 74
Individual Socialization Development 75
Independent Versus Interdependent Self-Construal 77
Horizontal Versus Vertical Self-Construal 77
Internal Versus External Locus of Control 79
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints 81
4 What Are the Keys to Understanding Cultural and Ethnic Identities? 83
Family and Gender Socialization 85
Family Socialization and Interaction Patterns 87
Gender Socialization and Interaction Patterns 90
Cultural-Ethnic Identity Formation 91
Cultural Identity Conceptualization 91
Ethnic Identity Conceptualization 94
Group Membership: Intercultural Boundary Crossing 98
Defining Acculturation and Enculturation 98
Social Identity 101
Systems-Level Factors 102
Individual-Level Factors 104
Interpersonal-Ethnic Media-Level Factors 105
Ethnic-Cultural Identity Change Process 107
Ethnic-Cultural Identity Typological Model 107
Racial-Ethnic Identity Development Model 108
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints 110
5 What Is Culture Shock? 113
Understanding Culture Shock 115
Culture Shock: Defining Characteristics 116
Culture Shock: Pros and Cons 118
Approaching Culture Shock: Underlying Factors 118
Managing Culture Shock: Initial Tips 122
Intercultural Adjustment: Developmental Patterns 123
The U-Curve Adjustment Model 126
The Revised W-Shaped Adjustment Model 127
Culture Shock: Peaks and Valleys 132
Reentry Culture Shock 134
Reentry Culture Shock: Surprising Elements 134
Resocialization: Different Returnees' Profiles 135
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints 136
6 What Is the Relationship Between Language and Culture? 139
Human Language: Distinctive Features 141
Arbitrariness 142
Abstractness 143
Meaning-Centeredness 144
Creativity 145
Understanding Multiple Language Rules 145
Phonological Rules 147
Morphological Rules 148
Syntactic Rules 149
Semantic Rules 149
Pragmatic Rules 151
Understanding Diverse Language Functions 153
The Cultural Worldview Function 153
The Cognitive Formation Function 154
The Social Reality Function 156
The Group Identity Function 158
The Social Change Function 161
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints 163
7 What Are the Major Differences in Intercultural Verbal Styles? 167
Intercultural Low-Context and High-Context Communication Framework 169
Defining Low-Context and High-Context Communication 169
Low-Context and High-Context Communication Examples 172
Low-Context and High-Context VerbalStyle Comparisons 175
Direct and Indirect Verbal Styles 175
Complementary, Animated, and Understated Verbal Styles 178
Informal and Formal Verbal Styles 179
Beliefs Expressed in Talk and Silence 181
Intercultural Conversation Process: Self-Disclosure 182
Self-Disclosure: Verbal Revealment Versus Concealment 182
Johari Window 186
Intercultural Persuasion Process 188
Linear Logic Versus Spiral Logic Persuasion 188
Self-Credentialing and Self-Humbling Verbal Modes 191
Face-Negotiation and Requesting Strategies 193
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints 194
8 What Are the Different Ways to Communicate Nonverbally Across Cultures? 197
The Importance of Nonverbal Communication 199
What Is Nonverbal Communication? 200
Actions or Words? 201
One Code, Many Interpretations 201
Verbal and Nonverbal Similarities 202
Forms of Nonverbal Communication 203
Artifacts and Clothing 203
Paralanguage 205
Facial Expressions 206
Gestures 210
Haptics 212
Boundary Regulations 214
Regulating Interpersonal Boundaries 215
Environmental Boundaries 217
Psychological Boundaries 218
Regulating Time 220
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints 224
9 What Causes Us to Hold Biases Against Outgroups? 227
Through Our Lenses: Communication Filters 230
Perception and Communication 230
Ethnocentrism and Communication 233
Stereotypes and Communication 236
Stereotypes and Media 238
Nearsighted Focus: Ingroup/Outgroup Membership Boundaries 239
Us Versus Them 239
Where Do I Fit In? 241
Intergroup Attributions 242
Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism 244
Prejudiced Remarks...or Innocent Jokes? 245
Prejudice: Explanations and Functions 247
Discrimination and Practice 248
Different Types of Racism 251
Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination 254
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints 255
10 What Are the Best Ways to Manage Intercultural Conflict? 257
Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background Factors 259
Culture-Based Conflict Lenses 260
Intercultural Conflict Perceptions 263
Intercultural Conflict Goal Issues 265
Perceived Scarce Resources 266
Intercultural Conflict Process Factors 268
Defining Conflict Styles 268
Cross-Cultural Conflict Styles 274
Cross-Ethnic Conflict Styles and Facework 276
Competent Intercultural Conflict Skills 279
Facework Management 280
Mindful Listening 281
Cultural Empathy 282
Mindful Reframing 282
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints 283
11 What Are the Challenges in Developing an Intercultural-Intimate Relationship? 287
Developing Intercultural-Intimate Relationships: Invisible Challenges 289
Different Cultural-Ethnic Membership Values 290
Different Expectations of Love 290
Different Expectations of Autonomy-Connection Issues 292
Communication Decoding Issues 293
Intercultural-Intimate Relationship Attraction: Facilitating Factors 296
Perceived Physical Attractiveness 296
Perceived Similarity 297
Self-Disclosure 298
Ethnic Identity and Self-Concept 299
Intercultural-Intimate Conflict: Major Obstacles 300
Encountering Prejudice and Racism 301
Countering Racism and Prejudice: Coping Strategies 304
Raising Secure Bicultural Children 305
Raising Bicultural-Biracial Children 306
Helping Children to Develop a Secure Identity 308
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints 309
12 What Are the Communication Issues Facing a Global Identity? 311
The E.net Self: Local Versus Global Outlook 313
Local Versus Global Identity 313
Defining the Background of E.net'ers 314
E.net'ers: Who Are They? 315
The E.net Identity: Dialectical Challenges 317
Spatial Zone Dialectics 318
Temporal Zone Dialectics 319
Identity Zone Dialectics 320
Global Identities in Action 321
The Lens of Television: Identity Imitation 321
Rap and Hip-Hop Music: Identity Expression 324
Fashion and Gadgets: Identity Construction 328
Video: Identity Transformation 330
Intercultural Toolkit: Recaps and Checkpoints 331
13 How Can We Become Ethical Intercultural Communicators? 333
Comparing Different Ethical Positions 335
Ethical Absolutism Position 335
Ethical Relativism Position 338
Ethical Universalism Position 339
Meta-Ethics Contextualism Position 339
Meta-Ethics: Procedures and Guidelines 340
Identifying Key Meta-Ethics Concepts 341
Meta-Ethical Decisions: Further Guidelines 345
An Intercultural Discovery Path Model 347
From Ethnocentrism to Ethnorelativism 349
Becoming a Dynamic Global Leader 352
In Conclusion 353
References 355
Glossary 373
Author Index 389
Subject Index 393
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