Understanding Psychology / Edition 8

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Overview

Taking advantage of the technological advances of recent years, this best-selling, brief book thoroughly integrates multimedia to provide readers with as rich a learning environment as the early 21st century has to offer. It presents psychology as a science and balances discussions of research, theory, and application—inspiring learners to develop their ability to think critically, ask questions, evaluate ideas, and ultimately form their own ideas. Discussions of similarities and differences among genders and cultures appear throughout the book. Chapter topics explore the science of psychology, the biological basis of behavior, sensation and perception, states of consciousness, learning, memory, cognition and mental abilities, motivation and emotion, life span development, psychological disorders, therapies, and social psychology. Interactive learning activities, outside readings, interactive matching/labeling games, Web links, and segments from the popular Mind Matters CD-ROM are noted in the margins of the book and available at the click of a mouse. For armchair psychologists interested in the never-ending search to understand behavior.

The book contains predominantly color illustrations, with some black-and-white illustrations.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
An appealing introductory text for undergraduates, featuring color and b&w photos and diagrams and an accessible writing style. Includes chapter overviews and summary tables, key terms, and review questions, plus critical thinking and application questions, and boxes on implications of significant research. This fourth edition offers enhanced pedagogical features, and new boxes with activities and strategies for personal change. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132343411
  • Publisher: Pearson Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 1/28/2007
  • Edition number: 8
  • Pages: 535
  • Product dimensions: 9.20 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Charles G. Morris received his B.A. from Yale University (1962) and his M.A. (1964) and Ph.D. (1965) in psychology from the University of Illinois. He joined the University of Michigan in 1965 where he served until his retirement in 2002.

From 1972-1977 he served as Associate Dean in the College of Literature, Science and the Arts. From 1980-1990, he served as Associate Chair of the Department of Psychology. Upon his retirement in 2002, he was appointed Emeritus Professor.

He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society.

Morris has written more than two dozen books, numerous articles, and more than thirty papers and presentations. His books include Psychology: An Introduction, Understanding Psychology, Basic Psychology, Psychology: Concepts and Applications, Psychology: The Core and Contemporary Psychology and Effective Behavior.

His early research centered on leadership, group interaction, and group problem solving. More recently, his publications and presentations have focused on various aspects of undergraduate education, on contemporary views of leadership, and on the "Big 5" personality traits.


Albert A. Maisto, the Carnegie Foundation's U.S. Professor of the Year for 1997-1998, is the Bonnie E. Cone Distinguished Professor for Teaching at The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, where he also serves as Associate Dean of the Honors College. Maisto earned both his Ph.D. and M.A. in Psychology from The University of Alabama.

His books include Psychology: An Introduction, Understanding Psychology, Basic Psychology, Psychology: Concepts and Applications, and Psychology: The Core.

Earlier in his career, he served as a visiting Professor to The University of Nottingham in England, and he spent two years on the faculty of The University of Connecticut. Throughout his career, Dr. Maisto has distinguished himself as an exemplary instructor of general psychology winning the prestigious Bank of America Award for Teaching Excellence.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

IT IS ALWAYS AN EXCITING CHALLENGE to capture recent developments in psychology and report them in a brief form that is accurate, interesting, and understandable. The field of psychology has changed so much over the years, and so many of the recent discoveries are truly exciting, that it's still fun to be able to pull it all together every three years in interesting, readable prose. The challenge is made more exciting as electronic media become more prevalent. For this edition especially, a great deal of time was spent locating and evaluating electronic resources that complement the text material. Electronic resources are so important to this revision that in conversations the publisher and the authors refer to this edition as the "media edition." Read on to discover what is new and exciting about Understanding Psychology, Fifth Edition!

New in this Edition

Electronic Resources

A major objective of the media edition has been to expand from the text to a number of online and electronic sources, taking maximum advantage of the new media that are increasingly becoming part of students' lives. To accomplish this we have added to the end of each chapter a new feature tided "On the Web" that lists relevant electronic materials including the following:

  • Learning activities and essays from The Psychology Place;
  • Readings from journals, magazines, and newspapers that relate to chapter material;
  • Games that incorporate psychological information;
  • Interactive exercises and demonstrations from James Hilton and Charles Perdue's Mind Matters CD-ROM;
  • Links to websitesdevoted to the study of psychology

All these features contain page references to show students where they fall within the chapter. In addition, icons in the page margins indicate the appropriate locations for these features. All these elements can be accessed through the Morris/Maisto companion website at ...

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Table of Contents

1 The Science of Psychology 1
2 Physiology and Behavior 34
3 Sensation and Perception 78
4 States of Consciousness 136
5 Learning 184
6 Memory 228
7 Cognition and Mental Abilities 266
8 Development Across the Life Span 348
9 Motivation and Emotion 362
10 Personality 406
11 Stress and Adjustment 446
12 Abnormal Behavior 480
13 Therapies 522
14 Social Psychology 558
Appendix A 599
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Preface

PREFACE

IT IS ALWAYS AN EXCITING CHALLENGE to capture recent developments in psychology and report them in a brief form that is accurate, interesting, and understandable. The field of psychology has changed so much over the years, and so many of the recent discoveries are truly exciting, that it's still fun to be able to pull it all together every three years in interesting, readable prose. The challenge is made more exciting as electronic media become more prevalent. For this edition especially, a great deal of time was spent locating and evaluating electronic resources that complement the text material. Electronic resources are so important to this revision that in conversations the publisher and the authors refer to this edition as the "media edition." Read on to discover what is new and exciting about Understanding Psychology, Fifth Edition!

New in this Edition Electronic Resources

A major objective of the media edition has been to expand from the text to a number of online and electronic sources, taking maximum advantage of the new media that are increasingly becoming part of students' lives. To accomplish this we have added to the end of each chapter a new feature tided "On the Web" that lists relevant electronic materials including the following:

  • Learning activities and essays from The Psychology Place;
  • Readings from journals, magazines, and newspapers that relate to chapter material;
  • Games that incorporate psychological information;
  • Interactive exercises and demonstrations from James Hilton and Charles Perdue's Mind Matters CD-ROM;
  • Links to websites devoted to the study ofpsychology

All these features contain page references to show students where they fall within the chapter. In addition, icons in the page margins indicate the appropriate locations for these features. All these elements can be accessed through the Morris/Maisto companion website at or on the Mind Matters CD-ROM. Taken together with the text, they constitute an outstanding and thoroughly modern learning package.

Significant New Information

Significant new information has been added on the Decade of Behavior, the Human Genome Project, neural plasticity and neurogenesis, ESP, sleep and dreaming, procedural memory, context-dependent and state-dependent memory, the biological basis of memory, emotional intelligence, human sexuality, the impact of peers and non-shared environments, teenage killers, the Big Five personality theory, gender and coping with stress, biological basis of stress, subjective well-being, non-specific factors in therapy, and ethnic violence. And of course, throughout the text statistics have been carefully updated to correspond to the most recent data available. By any measure, that is a substantial amount of new material that reflects the most up-to-date developments in the field of psychology. But there is more!

New Chapter-Opening Vignettes

Our approach to teaching has always been to start with the familiar and use that as a platform from which to explore the unfamiliar. With that in mind, each chapter in the book starts with an opening vignette that sets the stage for what is to come. In a continuing effort to make these vignettes as effective and timely as possible, several of them—based on real-life cases—are new to this edition.

Continuing Unifying Themes

Although there is much that is new in this edition, the original goals for this book remain unchanged: to present a scientific, accurate, and thorough overview of the essential concepts of psychology in engaging language that the average student can easily comprehend; to be current without being trendy; and to write clearly about psychology and its applications without being condescending. Three unifying themes continue to run throughout the text:

  • Psychology is a science. Every edition of this text has reflected the fact that psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes, and this new edition is no exception. Key topics are presented in a balanced, scientific manner, incorporating both classic studies and the most recent developments.
  • Human behavior and thought are diverse, varied, and affected by culture. For today's students and instructors of introductory psychology, diversity is more than simply an issue for discussion and debate; it is a daily reality. The challenge confronting any textbook author is to satisfy a heterogeneous audience without becoming trendy or unscientific. Over the last several years, the body of research examining issues of diversity has grown to significant levels. As a result, consideration of diversity is expanded in every new edition, both diversity within the North American population and diversity across cultures worldwide. For example, the Fifth Edition contains new boxes on the universality of the Big Five personality traits and ethnic violence throughout the world. Material relating to diversity is incorporated throughout the text.
  • The study of psychology involves active thinking, questioning, and problem solving. Education involves far more than just memorizing information. A successful course in general psychology (and, for that matter, in most other disciplines) helps students develop their ability to analyze, to ask questions, to evaluate the ideas of others, and ultimately to form their own judgments. Encouraging active, critical thinking has long been a major objective of the courses we teach and of this text, and it remains a basic theme in the Fifth Edition.
Accessible to Students Writing Style

Throughout every edition of this text we have kept in mind that our final audience consists primarily of college undergraduates. Having taught undergraduates for decades, we realize that it is essential to make a textbook as accessible and helpful as possible. We have retained the clear, straightforward writing style to which students and reviewers have responded so positively over the years. Once again the text contains plenty of examples relevant to today's undergraduates. The tone is conversational without resorting to slang.

Pedagogy

The teaching pedagogy integrated in every chapter has made this book a student favorite. A chapter-opening Overview provides students with a road map for each chapter. Summary Tables provide concise reviews of the most important concepts (for example, defense mechanisms, types of memory, theories of personality, and the structures and functions of the brain). Key terms are printed in boldface and defined in the margin where they first appear. The result is that students don't just process lists of unrelated facts, but instead have a cognitive map with which to contextualize, better understand, and more effectively relate and recall concepts. By answering the Review Questions at the end of each major section, students can test themselves before moving ahead.

Art and Design

Finally, the Fifth Edition has been completely redesigned to complement the goals and features of the text. It is colorful and engaging without being busy or distracting. New figures and photographs have been carefully selected to complement the text material.

Supplements

It is increasingly true today that, as valuable as a good textbook is, it is still only one element of a comprehensive learning package. Throughout the many editions of this book, we have labored to produce not only a well-written text but also a full range of supplemental learning tools. The supplements package that accompanies the Fifth Edition is the most comprehensive and impressive yet.

Multimedia, Internet, and World
Wide Web Materials for Instructors
and Students

Prentice Hall and Peregrine Publishers are proud to present a melding of two acclaimed interactive learning resources: Prentice Hall's Companion Website with Peregrine's The Psychology Place. Both are accessible at .

The Companion Website portion of this new resource provides materials to help students review chapter content and prepare for tests. Practice tests and matching/labeling exercises can be submitted for immediate grading to help students know where they need to spend the most time in review. In addition, chat rooms and message boards allow students to share their ideas about psychology with students from their own classroom or from colleges across the country.

Other materials are referenced by icons in the margins of the text and can be found in The Psychology Place, which is accessible through each chapter of the Companion Website. Interactive exercises, reports of interesting research, articles from Scientific American, and Op-ed pieces are provided that will enhance the course for motivated students. The Instructor's Resource Manual, the Practice Test and Review Manual, and our new Media User's Guide reference these materials, which can be made a part of the classroom experience or used as homework assignments.

On-Line Course Management. For instructors interested in distance learning, Prentice Hall and Pearson Education are proud to offer a fully customizable, on-line course with www links, on-line testing, and many other course management tools. See your local Prentice Hall representative or visit our special Demonstration Central website at for more information.

For Instructors

Instructor's Resource Manual (0-13-027990-0) by Alan Swinkels, St. Edward's University, and Tracy Giuliano, Southwestern University. For each chapter the manual contains a Chapter Outline; a list of Learning Objectives which correspond to the exercises in the Practice Test and Review Manual; Lecture Suggestions describing additional topics of interest; suggested Demonstrations and Activities such as class projects and experiments; and Student Assignments including reports and out-of-class exercises. Each chapter also contains a list of the ABC News videos, multimedia resources, and transparencies available to accompany the text plus Handouts for use with the Demonstrations and Activities. Finally, each chapter ends with suggestions on how to use the associated multimedia materials in either classroom presentations or as homework assignments.

Test Item File (0-13-027996-X) by Gary Piggrem, DeVry Institute of Technology. Contains over 4000 multiple-choice, true/false, and essay questions. To facilitate instructors in creating tests, each question is page-referenced to the textbook, is described as either factual, conceptual, or applied, and is identified as being new, from the previous edition, or revised. We will continue our effort to improve and expand the Test Item File for future editions, and as always we welcome your comments, suggestions, and teaching feedback. Send them directly to: Charles G. Morris, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1109.

Prentice Hall Custom Test for Windows and Macintosh platforms. The questions in the Test Item File are available on both platforms and allow instructors complete personal flexibility in building and editing their own customized tests. Advances in the most recent version of this software now allow instructors to load their tests onto the World Wide Web or a Local Area Network in an online testing format.
– Windows PH Custom Test (0-13-027998-6)
– Macintosh PH Custom Test (0-13-027999-4)

Toll-Free Telephone Test Preparation Services. Prentice Hall offers a telephone test preparation service through which instructors an call a special, toll-free number and select up to 200 questions from the printed Test Item File available with the text. The test and an alternate version (if requested), and answer key are mailed or faxed within hours of the initial request.

PH Color Acetate Transparencies for Introductory Psychology Series V (0-13-095708-9) contains illustrations, figures, and graphs from the text as well as images from a variety of other sources. </

PowerPoint Slides. Scores of illustrations, figures, and graphs from the text have been made accessible via the popular PowerPoint programs from Microsoft. Instructors can download these images from the Faculty Section on the Companion Website , edit them, and project them onto a screen while delivering lectures, or clip them for inclusion on web-based learning systems.

ABC News/PH Video Library. Prentice Hall has assembled a collection of feature segments from award-winning news programs. The following libraries are currently available to qualified adopters:

Introductory Psychology Series III (0-13-886235-4) consists of segments from award-winning news programs such as "ABC Nightly News," "Nightline," "20/20/" "Prime Time Live," and "The Health Show" Summaries of questions, designed to stimulate critical thinking for each segment, are included in the Instructor's Resource Manual.

The Alliance Series: The Annenberg/CPB Collection. The Alliance Series is the most extensive collection of professionally produced videos available with any introductory psychology textbook. Selections include videos in the following Annenberg series: The Brain, The Brain Teaching Modules, Discovering Psychology, The Mind, and The Mind Teaching Modules. Contact your local Prentice Hall representative for details.

Teaching Psychology, 3/E (0-13-028990-6) by Fred Whitford of Montana State University. Serves as a guide for new instructors or teaching assistants to help them manage the myriad complex tasks required to teach effectively from the start. The Third Edition has been updated to reflect the explosive growth of technology for the classroom and provides many excellent suggestions for integrating the Web into the course.

For Students

Practice Test and Review Manual (0-13-028001-1) by Joyce Bishop, Golden West College. Each chapter contains an Overview to introduce students to the chapter; Class Notes Outline with space for students to take notes from the text and during lecture; a Learning Objectives exercise to test students' understanding of the main themes; a multiple choice Pretest and Posttest for gauging students' progress; Short Essay Questions to develop writing skills; Language Support Section for extra support in English; and Flash Cards of vocabulary terms. Each chapter also reviews the multimedia materials available with this edition with special exercises relating these resources to material in the text.

The New York Times Themes of the Times Supplement for Introductory Psychology. Prentice Hall and the New York Times have joined forces to bring students a complimentary newspaper supplement containing recent articles pertinent to introductory psychology. These articles augment the text material and provide real-world examples. They are updated twice a year.

Supplementary Texts

Any one of these texts can be packaged with Understanding Psychology, Fifth Edition at a reduced price:

The Psychology Major: Careers and Strategies for Success by Eric Landrum (Idaho State University), Stephen Davis (Emporia State University), and Terri Landrum (Idaho State University). This 160page paperback provides valuable information on career options available to psychology majors, tips for improving academic performance, and a guide to the APA style of research reporting.

Experiencing Psychology by Gary Brannigan (State University of New York at Plattsburgh). This hands-on activity book contains thirty-nine active learning experiences corresponding to major topics in psychology to provide students with hands-on experience in "doing" psychology.

Forty Studies that Changed Psychology, Third Edition by Roger Hock (Mendocino College). Presenting the seminal research studies that have shaped modern psychological study, this brief supplement provides an overview of the environment that gave rise to each study, its experimental design, its findings, and its impact on current thinking in the discipline.

How to Think Like a Psychologist by Donald McBurney (University of Pittsburgh). This unique supplementary text uses a question-answer format to explore some of the most common questions students ask about psychology.

Acknowledgments

We are deeply grateful for the assistance we received from the many people who reviewed the previous edition and suggested improvements for this edition:

Bobby Hutchinson, Modesto Junior College
Cheryl McFadden, York Technical College
Anita Rosenfield, DeVry Institute of Technology
Denys deCatanzaro, McMaster University
John Jahnke, Miami University
Philip S. Lasiter, Florida Atlantic University
Stephen Mayer, Oberlin College
Ronald Nowaczyk, Clemson University
Wesley Schultz, California State University, San Marcos
Steve Arnold, Northeast Community College
Susan K. Johnson, University of North Carolina, Charlotte
Don McCoy, University of Kentucky
Jerald S. Marshall, University of Central Florida
Michael Ruchs, Baker College
Morgan Slusher, Essex Community College
Harold G. Souheaver, East Arkansas Community College

We would also like to express our deep gratitude to the outstanding team of people at Prentice Hall, all of whom made major contributions. We are immensely grateful to Bob Weiss who served as development editor on this edition. Bob's good judgment, writing skills, and eye for details have led to countless improvements from the previous edition. Bill Webber, Executive Editor, continued to bring invigorating dedication and commitment to this edition, not to mention his excellent ideas for new features. Editorial assistant, Deborah Fenster, helped with many of the administrative details involved in this project. The multimedia elements were prepared by John Jordan with considerable help from Dennis Thompson (Georgia State University) and Michael D'Angelo. Al Maisto's former graduate assistant, Sherri McKee, provided invaluable help with many research tasks. The production of the Fifth Edition was managed by Mary Rottino and directly supervised by Maureen Richardson, whose dedication, expertise, and quiet persistence assured an end product of very high quality, delivered on schedule! Thanks also to manufacturing buyer Tricia Kenny, and to Cyndy Taylor, who coordinated various aspects of the ancillary program for this edition. Ximena Tamvakopoulos did a super job on the design of both the interior and the cover. Photo researcher Linda Sykes supplied the Fifth Edition with many new and interesting photographs. Finally, special thanks to Sharon Cosgrove for directing the marketing campaign for the book.

Charles G. Morris
Albert A. Maisto

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