Understanding Race and Ethnic Relations / Edition 4

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Provides the reader with a brief introduction to the core theories, concepts and issues concerning race and ethnic relations in the United States. The book discusses the changing face of ethnicity, and dominant-minority relationships. Examines the most current Census Bureau projections to speculate what U.S. race, religion, and ethnicity might be like in the mid-21st century. Coverage of minority groups, as well as racial and ethnic groups in today's American society is provided. Prejudice and discrimination, as well as ethnocentrism, and the dynamics of inter-group relations, are also discussed. "The Dillingham Flaw" and the importance of viewing the foreign-born presence in the U.S. within a larger context - from a sociological perspective - in order to avoid inaccurate historical comparisons, are explained. Anyone interested in an introductory look into the current state of race and ethnic relationships in America.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

Thank you to our reviewers!

Theresa Gilbertson, University of Southern Florida Sarasota-Manatee

Nekehia Quashie, University of Utah

“Overall, this book provides comprehensive insight into the foundations of the relationships and interactions we observe between racial and ethnic groups both historically and contemporaneously.”

Nekehia Quashie, University of Utah

“Parrillo's expertise in issues of ethnicity, culture, and diversity make him a most credible author whose writing style is both stimulating and easy to ‘digest'.”

Theresa Gilbertson, University of Southern Florida Sarasota-Manatee

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205792009
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 3/11/2011
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 224
  • Sales rank: 180,053
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Born and raised in Paterson, New Jersey, Vincent N. Parrillo experienced multiculturalism early as the son of a second-generation Italian American father and Irish/German American mother. He grew up in an ethnically diverse neighborhood, developing friendships and teenage romances with second- and third-generation Dutch, German, Italian, and Polish Americans. As he grew older, he developed other friendships that frequently crossed racial and religious lines.

Professor Parrillo came to the field of sociology after first completing a bachelor’s degree in business management and a master’s degree in English. After teaching high school English and then serving as a college administrator, he took his first sociology course when he began doctoral studies at Rutgers University. Inspired by a discipline that scientifically investigates social issues, he changed his major and completed his degree in sociology.

Leaving his administrative post but staying at William Paterson University, Prof. Parrillo has since taught sociology for more than 30 years. He has lectured throughout the United States, Canada, and Europe and has regularly conducted diversity leadership programs for the military and large corporations. His keynote address at a bilingual educators’ conference was published in Vital Speeches of the Day, which normally contains only speeches by national political leaders and heads of corporations and organizations.

Prof. Parrillo was a Fulbright Scholar in the Czech Republic and Scholar-in-Residence at the University of Pisa. He was the keynote speaker at international conferences in Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden. He has met with government leaders, nongovernment agency leaders, law enforcement officials, and educators in more than a dozen countries as a consultant on immigration policy, hate crimes, and multicultural education. He has done on-air interviews with Radio Free Europe and Voice of America, appeared on national Canadian television, and been interviewed by numerous Canadian and European reporters.

Prof. Parrillo’s ventures into U.S. media include writing, narrating, and producing two PBS award-winning documentaries, Ellis Island: Gateway to America and Smokestacks and Steeples: A Portrait of Paterson. Contacted by reporters across the nation for his views on race and ethnic relations, he has been quoted in dozens of newspapers, including the Chicago Sun-Times, Cincinnati Inquirer, Houston Chronicle, Hartford Courant, Omaha World-Herald, Orlando Sentinel, and Virginian Pilot. He has appeared on numerous U.S. radio and television programs.

Prof. Parrillo is also the author of Strangers to These Shores, tenth edition, Contemporary Social Problems, sixth edition (Allyn & Bacon), Cities and Urban Life, fourth edition (with John Macionis), Diversity in America, second edition, and Rethinking Today’s Minorities. His articles and book reviews have appeared in journals such as The Social Science Journal, Sociological Forum, Social Forces, Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Journal of American Ethnic History, and the Encyclopedia of American Immigration. He is General Editor of the Encyclopedia of Sociology for Sage Publications. Several of his books and articles have been translated into other languages, including Chinese, Czech, Danish, German, Italian, Japanese, Polish, and Swedish.

An active participant in various capacities throughout the years in the American Sociological Association and Eastern Sociological Society, Prof. Parrillo has been listed in Who’s Who in International Education, Outstanding Educators of America, American Men and Women of Science, and Who’s Who in the East. In 2004, he received the Award for Excellence in Scholarship from William Paterson University. In March 2005, the Eastern Sociological Society named him its Robin M. Williams, Jr. Distinguished Lecturer for 2005–2006, and elected him as its vice president for 2008–2009.

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Table of Contents

1 The Study of Minorities 1
The Stranger as a Social Phenomenon 2
Similarity and Attraction 2
Social Distance 3
Perceptions 6
Interactions 6
A Sociological Perspective 7
Functional Theory 8
Conflict Theory 9
Interactionist Theory 9
Minority Groups 10
Development of a Definition 11
Minority-Group Characteristics 12
Racial and Ethnic Groups 13
Ethnocentrism 14
In the United States 16
In Other Times and Lands 16
Eurocentrism and Afrocentrism 19
Objectivity 20
The Dillingham Flaw 22
Personal Troubles and Public Issues 23
The Dynamics of Intergroup Relations 24
Retrospect 25
Key Terms 25
Review Questions 26
Suggested Readings 26
2 Culture and Social Structure 27
The Concept of Culture 27
The Reality Construct 29
Cultural Change 33
Cultural Diffusion 33
Subcultures 35
Structural Conditions 38
Stratification 40
Social Class 40
Class Consciousness 41
Ethnicity and Social Class 42
Blaming the Poor or Society? 43
Intergroup Conflict 48
Cultural Differentiation 49
Structural Differentiation 50
Theories of Minority Integration 53
Assimilation (Majority-Conformity) Theory 53
Amalgamation (Melting Pot) Theory 55
Accommodation (Pluralistic) Theory 59
Is There a White Culture? 61
Retrospect 62
Key Terms 63
Review Questions 64
Suggested Readings 64
3 Prejudice and Discrimination 65
Prejudice 65
The Psychology of Prejudice 66
The Sociology of Prejudice 72
Stereotyping 76
Television's Influence 80
Can Prejudice Be Reduced? 83
Discrimination 86
Levels of Discrimination 87
Relationships Between Prejudice and Discrimination 87
Other Aspects of Discrimination 89
The Affirmative Action Controversy 90
Retrospect 96
Key Terms 96
Review Questions 97
Suggested Readings 97
4 Dominant-Minority Relations 99
Minority-Group Responses 99
Avoidance 99
Deviance 100
Defiance 102
Acceptance 104
Consequences of Minority-Group Status 105
Negative Self-Image 105
The Vicious Circle 106
Marginality 107
Middleman Minorities 108
Dominant-Group Responses 110
Legislative Controls 110
Segregation 111
Expulsion 112
Xenophobia 113
Annihilation 113
Hate Groups and Hate Crimes 116
Exploitation 118
The Power-Differential Theory 119
The Internal-Colonialism Theory 121
The Split-Labor-Market Theory 122
Limitations of These Theories 124
Retrospect 124
Key Terms 126
Review Questions 126
Suggested Readings 126
5 The Ever-Changing U.S. Mosaic 128
Ethnic Consciousness 129
Country of Origin as a Factor 129
The Three-Generation Hypothesis 130
The Changing Face of Ethnicity 132
The White Ethnic Revival 133
Ethnicity as a Social Process 134
Symbolic Ethnicity 138
Current Ethnic Issues 139
Immigration Fears 139
Undocumented Aliens 143
Bilingual Eucation 145
The English-Only Movement 148
Multiculturalism 150
Political Correctness 152
Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Future 154
Indicators of Ethnoreligious Change 156
Beyond Tomorrow 158
Key Terms 158
Review Questions 159
Suggested Readings 159
Notes 161
Appendix 177
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