Understanding Reading Problems: Assessment and Instruction / Edition 5

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Overview

Featuring classroom-based, teacher-driven approaches to effective reading assessment and remediation, the new edition of this market-leading book provides up-to-date coverage of reading processes, their assessment, and their corrective instruction. The highly popular authors present thorough treatments of reading and writing at every stage of development and include assessments in their entirety for emergent literacy including concepts about print and the concept of word, and many tests of phonological awareness, developmental spelling, word recognition, fluency, and phonics knowledge.

Among the topics covered are a detailed treatment of Informal Reading Inventories (with examples from the authors’ Developmental Literacy Inventory); Lexiles and guided reading levels; running records; developmental spelling stages; emergent literacy assessments including concepts about print, the concept of word, and phonological awareness; reading and spelling-based tests of phonics knowledge; assessing and teaching students with limited English proficiency; and practical strategies for adapting instruction for special needs students in inclusive classrooms. The Eighth Edition has new chapters on Response to Intervention and on the teaching of culturally and linguistically different students.

The Eighth Edition incorporates these new features:

· A comprehensive inventory for assessing emergent literacy, including several new assessments of phonological awareness (Chapter 3).

· Detailed instruction for administering, scoring, and interpreting an informal reading inventory, plus sample sections of an IRI (Chapter 5 and in the supplements).

· A thorough discussion of Response to intervention (Chapter 2).

· Extensive assessment of the often-neglected topic of narrative comprehension of early readers (Chapter 3).

· New instruments for assessing phonological awareness

· New reading and spelling-based tests of phonics knowledge

· A new instrument for assessing students’ developmental spelling in K through 12 (Chapter 8).

· A new chapter on teaching culturally and linguistically different students (Chapter 9).

· The Eighth Edition is organized by developmental levels, with explanations of reading issues at each level, approaches to assessment, and teaching methods delivered at the point of need.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321013330
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 8/4/1999
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 452
  • Product dimensions: 6.46 (w) x 10.52 (h) x 1.13 (d)

Meet the Author

Jean Gillet has been an elementary reading specialist in central Virginia. She has also served as a classroom teacher, staff development specialist, and university educator. Her professional interests include the diagnosis and correction of reading difficulties, children’s developmental spelling, and children’s writing. Jean’s extensive published work includes topics such as including contributing to classroom instructional materials on writing and spelling. The coauthor of several textbooks for teachers on language arts, reading, writing, and spelling, she received her doctorate from the University of Virginia.

Charles Temple teaches courses in literacy and peace studies at Hobart and William Smith Colleges in Geneva, New York. Dr. Temple studied with the late Edmund Henderson at the University of Virginia, where he explored reading instruction, reading disabilities, invented spelling, and what was to become emergent literacy. His published books cover such topics as emergent literacy, writing instruction, language arts, diagnosis and remediation of reading disabilities, and children’s literature. He is a director of Critical Thinking International, Inc., a non-profit corporation that develops materials and fields mid-career professionals for teacher training around the world.

Codruta Temple taught English as a foreign language and was principal of a bilingual lyceum (high school) in Romania. She taught French as a Fulbright Scholar in California before moving permanently to the United States, where she earned a PhD. in English Education and linguistics at Syracuse University. Professor Temple now divides her time between teaching ESL methods and linguistics at New York State University College at Cortland and at Hobart and William Smith Colleges in Geneva.

Alan Crawford is Emeritus Professor of Education at California State University, Los Angeles. A Past President of the California Reading Association, he has done extensive teaching, consulting, and writing on teaching reading in the elementary school, especially for English language learners. Alan has written curriculum for teaching reading in Spanish and serves on the Editorial Review Board of Lectura y Vida. He served as IRA’s representative to UNESCO for many years and was a Senior Literacy Specialist at UNESCO in Paris during International Literacy Year (1989-90). He is a director of Critical Thinking International and frequently presents workshops on a volunteer basis for international development projects in Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Africa

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

Helping all students to become effective, strategic readers who read and write enthusiastically and purposefully is one of the greatest challenges facing teachers today. Teachers need to know how to

  • use a wide variety of teaching methods, materials, and strategies to help children learn to read,
  • monitor and document students' progress, strengths, and needs,
  • diagnose difficulties in reading and related areas,
  • apply corrective instruction when appropriate, and
  • prevent literacy problems from arising in the future.

To do so, teachers need well-informed diagnostic judgment and the tools and strategies to monitor students' development effectively. Such strategies and tools must be flexible and practical, tapping the kinds of everyday reading and writing that students use in and out of the classroom.

Teachers must also undertake corrective instruction within the context of regular ongoing instruction, without setting problem readers apart from others. Such diagnostic and instructional strategies are the heart of this book.

When the first edition of this book appeared in 1982, we wrote in that preface that the field of reading education was undergoing exciting changes. In each successive edition, we have reiterated this thought, because it remained true. The first few editions saw the growing use of informal diagnostic techniques gradually supplant the use of formal, standardized diagnostic tests, as well as a growing responsibility for classroom teachers to undertake their own diagnostic assessment. Basal reading systems and skills management systems, once the linchpin of reading instruction, werechallenged by literature-based approaches and collaborative learning.

Today, new emphases on authentic assessment that accurately represents what students can do challenge our thinking about measurement and evaluation. Simultaneously, many states are struggling to define ways to increase student achievement and ensure accountability to the public. Today's teachers are expected to use continuous developmental assessment devices; to use portfolios of student work to demonstrate and evaluate student achievement; to teach reading using authentic literature and a wide variety of teaching methods; to integrate reading and writing across all curricular areas; and to help all students, regardless of their level of literacy, to become effective, strategic readers.

This book provides the kind of clear, detailed, realistic help teachers need to fulfill these expectations.

The concepts and principles that guided the development of the first four editions, and which made this book a leader in its field, have been strengthened and expanded in the fifth edition. We have

  • updated and expanded our treatment of important trends in research and practice, including emergent literacy, portfolio assessment, strategic reading, literature-based instruction, learning English as a second language, and developmentally appropriate assessment and instruction;
  • described the primary purposes for assessment and the important differences between assessments for internal and external audiences;
  • expanded and elaborated upon our extensive coverage of instructional approaches and methods, including new material on emergent literacy, beginning and developmental literacy, the development of reading strategies, word recognition, developing predictive thinking, teaching adolescent poor readers, increasing students' time spent reading, and content-area reading strategies; and
  • added all-new material on teaching students whose first language is other than English and on authentic assessment, with an emphasis on lifelong literacy.

Convincing case studies of real readers and examples of real students, work are used throughout the book to illustrate points and help users develop diagnosticcorrective judgment.

The fifth edition examines both traditional and contemporary means of assessing reading strengths and needs, as well as developmental and corrective instruction; our goal has been to combine the best tried-and-true methods with the best new strategies for diagnosing and teaching. Emphasis is placed on preventing reading problems by providing necessary experiences for children to develop and progress as readers, as well as on correction and remediation.

The first five chapters comprise Part One, dealing with assessment topics and issues. Chapter 1 describes what teachers need to know about the reading process and its assessment, including the internal and external audiences for assessment data, an overview of reading developmental stages, and an introduction to principles that underlie authentic assessment.

Chapter 2 describes various types of ongoing assessments teachers often use, including running records, systematic observation of students, reading strategies, the use of cloze procedures, and monitoring growth in spelling and composition.

Chapter 3 details widely used methods for the periodic, in-depth assessment of reading progress, including how to select, administer, score and interpret informal reading inventories and related devices.

Chapter 4 describes in detail the purposes of classroom portfolios and how to begin and manage a portfolio assessment program. Included are strategies for enlisting the support of administrators and parents, conferring with parents and fostering students' self-evaluation.

Chapter 5 deals with formal assessments, including fundamental measurement concepts, characteristics of tests, norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests, and minimum competency tests.

The remaining six chapters deal primarily with instructional topics and issues.

Chapter 6 details the stages of emergent and beginning reading, including assessing and teaching print concepts and phonemic awareness, fostering reading comprehension, and early intervention programs.

Chapter 7 deals with teaching developing readers who are beyond the beginning reading stage. Developing word recognition strategies, including sight recognition and word analysis strategies, reading fluency, and reading and listening comprehension are major themes. The critical issue of how much time students spend actually reading is discussed, with implications for teachers and parents.

Chapter 8 deals with teaching older students and adolescents who are reluctant or disabled readers. The special challenges of dealing with older beginning readers are detailed, with authentic case studies and a wealth of instructional recommendations.

Chapter 9 details how students progress to mature reading and writing, in which students are no longer learning to read but are now using reading to learn. The reading-to-learn operations of anticipation, investigation, and reflection are described with numerous teaching strategies. Predictable patterns of nonfiction text organization and effective vocabulary teaching are presented.

Chapter 10 an entirely new chapter in the fifth edition, describes strategies for teaching reading and writing to students whose first language is not English. Principles and processes of second language learning and bilingualism are detailed, along with ways to adapt phonics, decoding and spelling instruction for students who may struggle with some English phonemes, and scaffolding to improve comprehension of written English.

Chapter 11 deals with philosophical, legal, and instructional issues related to the teaching of students with special learning needs. Relevant legislation, issues of inclusion, and ways of identifying and assessing special-needs students are outlined. Intellectual factors and tests of intelligence and learning aptitude, physical factors related to vision and hearing, language development and disorders, and the special challenges of learning disabilities and dyslexia are discussed.

As in the previous four editions, we are indebted to a growing list of friends, colleagues, and strangers for their influence advice and encouragement. Our friend and colleague Alan Crawford wrote Chapter 10 and gave us invaluable insight and support. Samuel R. Mathews II and Josephine Peyton Young provided generous contributions to the fourth edition which are still felt in this edition. Jackson-Via Elementary School's Karyl Reynolds, media specialist, and Tracy Snead, first-grade teacher, contributed their special expertise in the development of bibliographies and literature searches, as well as their friendship and support. Our colleagues in the Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Project—Jeannie Steele, Kurt Meredith, Scott Walter, Donna Ogle, and Alan Crawford-along with 70 volunteer teacher educators and hundreds of international colleagueshave deeply affected our thinking on reading-to-learn issues.

We are grateful for the careful reading and insightful criticism of our fifth edition manuscript reviewers: Mariam Jean Dreher, University of Maryland; Lee A. Dubert, Boise State University; Ann Harris, Austin Peay State University; Ellen Jampole, SUNY Cordand; Barbara Laster, Towson University; David C. Little, Samford University; Patrick McCabe, Nova Southeastern University; Richard Osterberg, California State University, Fresno; Barbara Pugh, California State University, Bakersfield; Mark Sadoski, Texas A&M University; and Rebecca Swearingen, Southwest Missouri State University. We also gratefully acknowledge the many helpful suggestions we have received since the first edition appeared from the reviewers and users of previous editions.

We also extend our heartfelt thanks to our editor, Virginia Blanford, and her staff at Addison Wesley Longman; our editor on previous editions, Christopher Dennison; and to Susan Free and the production staff at York Production Services.

Finally, we are grateful to our students and colleagues at Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Mary Baldwin College, and the Charlottesville, Virginia, Public Schools. Many, many people helped make this book what it is; we acknowledge their many influences with gratitude and offer our work to you with pride.

Jean Wallace Gillet
Charles Temple

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Table of Contents

Preface
Ch. 1 Reading and Its Assessment 1
Ch. 2 Assessment for Internal Audiences: Ongoing Assessments 55
Ch. 3 Assessment for Internal Audiences: Periodic In-Depth Assessments 89
Ch. 4 Assessment for Internal Audiences: Portfolio Assessment 134
Ch. 5 Assessment for External Audiences: Formal Measures 180
Ch. 6 Emergent and Beginning Literacy 203
Ch. 7 Assessing and Teaching Developing Readers 264
Ch. 8 Mature Readers and Writers 322
Ch. 9 Adolescent Students with Reading Problems 357
Ch. 10 Strategies for Teaching Reading and Writing to English Language Learners 398
Ch. 11 Factors Related to Reading Problems 435
App.: Glossary of Assessment Terms 463
Author Index 469
Subject Index 475
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Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

Helping all students to become effective, strategic readers who read and write enthusiastically and purposefully is one of the greatest challenges facing teachers today. Teachers need to know how to

  • use a wide variety of teaching methods, materials, and strategies to help children learn to read,
  • monitor and document students' progress, strengths, and needs,
  • diagnose difficulties in reading and related areas,
  • apply corrective instruction when appropriate, and
  • prevent literacy problems from arising in the future.

To do so, teachers need well-informed diagnostic judgment and the tools and strategies to monitor students' development effectively. Such strategies and tools must be flexible and practical, tapping the kinds of everyday reading and writing that students use in and out of the classroom.

Teachers must also undertake corrective instruction within the context of regular ongoing instruction, without setting problem readers apart from others. Such diagnostic and instructional strategies are the heart of this book.

When the first edition of this book appeared in 1982, we wrote in that preface that the field of reading education was undergoing exciting changes. In each successive edition, we have reiterated this thought, because it remained true. The first few editions saw the growing use of informal diagnostic techniques gradually supplant the use of formal, standardized diagnostic tests, as well as a growing responsibility for classroom teachers to undertake their own diagnostic assessment. Basal reading systems and skills management systems, once the linchpin of reading instruction,werechallenged by literature-based approaches and collaborative learning.

Today, new emphases on authentic assessment that accurately represents what students can do challenge our thinking about measurement and evaluation. Simultaneously, many states are struggling to define ways to increase student achievement and ensure accountability to the public. Today's teachers are expected to use continuous developmental assessment devices; to use portfolios of student work to demonstrate and evaluate student achievement; to teach reading using authentic literature and a wide variety of teaching methods; to integrate reading and writing across all curricular areas; and to help all students, regardless of their level of literacy, to become effective, strategic readers.

This book provides the kind of clear, detailed, realistic help teachers need to fulfill these expectations.

The concepts and principles that guided the development of the first four editions, and which made this book a leader in its field, have been strengthened and expanded in the fifth edition. We have

  • updated and expanded our treatment of important trends in research and practice, including emergent literacy, portfolio assessment, strategic reading, literature-based instruction, learning English as a second language, and developmentally appropriate assessment and instruction;
  • described the primary purposes for assessment and the important differences between assessments for internal and external audiences;
  • expanded and elaborated upon our extensive coverage of instructional approaches and methods, including new material on emergent literacy, beginning and developmental literacy, the development of reading strategies, word recognition, developing predictive thinking, teaching adolescent poor readers, increasing students' time spent reading, and content-area reading strategies; and
  • added all-new material on teaching students whose first language is other than English and on authentic assessment, with an emphasis on lifelong literacy.

Convincing case studies of real readers and examples of real students, work are used throughout the book to illustrate points and help users develop diagnosticcorrective judgment.

The fifth edition examines both traditional and contemporary means of assessing reading strengths and needs, as well as developmental and corrective instruction; our goal has been to combine the best tried-and-true methods with the best new strategies for diagnosing and teaching. Emphasis is placed on preventing reading problems by providing necessary experiences for children to develop and progress as readers, as well as on correction and remediation.

The first five chapters comprise Part One, dealing with assessment topics and issues. Chapter 1 describes what teachers need to know about the reading process and its assessment, including the internal and external audiences for assessment data, an overview of reading developmental stages, and an introduction to principles that underlie authentic assessment.

Chapter 2 describes various types of ongoing assessments teachers often use, including running records, systematic observation of students, reading strategies, the use of cloze procedures, and monitoring growth in spelling and composition.

Chapter 3 details widely used methods for the periodic, in-depth assessment of reading progress, including how to select, administer, score and interpret informal reading inventories and related devices.

Chapter 4 describes in detail the purposes of classroom portfolios and how to begin and manage a portfolio assessment program. Included are strategies for enlisting the support of administrators and parents, conferring with parents and fostering students' self-evaluation.

Chapter 5 deals with formal assessments, including fundamental measurement concepts, characteristics of tests, norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests, and minimum competency tests.

The remaining six chapters deal primarily with instructional topics and issues.

Chapter 6 details the stages of emergent and beginning reading, including assessing and teaching print concepts and phonemic awareness, fostering reading comprehension, and early intervention programs.

Chapter 7 deals with teaching developing readers who are beyond the beginning reading stage. Developing word recognition strategies, including sight recognition and word analysis strategies, reading fluency, and reading and listening comprehension are major themes. The critical issue of how much time students spend actually reading is discussed, with implications for teachers and parents.

Chapter 8 deals with teaching older students and adolescents who are reluctant or disabled readers. The special challenges of dealing with older beginning readers are detailed, with authentic case studies and a wealth of instructional recommendations.

Chapter 9 details how students progress to mature reading and writing, in which students are no longer learning to read but are now using reading to learn. The reading-to-learn operations of anticipation, investigation, and reflection are described with numerous teaching strategies. Predictable patterns of nonfiction text organization and effective vocabulary teaching are presented.

Chapter 10 an entirely new chapter in the fifth edition, describes strategies for teaching reading and writing to students whose first language is not English. Principles and processes of second language learning and bilingualism are detailed, along with ways to adapt phonics, decoding and spelling instruction for students who may struggle with some English phonemes, and scaffolding to improve comprehension of written English.

Chapter 11 deals with philosophical, legal, and instructional issues related to the teaching of students with special learning needs. Relevant legislation, issues of inclusion, and ways of identifying and assessing special-needs students are outlined. Intellectual factors and tests of intelligence and learning aptitude, physical factors related to vision and hearing, language development and disorders, and the special challenges of learning disabilities and dyslexia are discussed.

As in the previous four editions, we are indebted to a growing list of friends, colleagues, and strangers for their influence advice and encouragement. Our friend and colleague Alan Crawford wrote Chapter 10 and gave us invaluable insight and support. Samuel R. Mathews II and Josephine Peyton Young provided generous contributions to the fourth edition which are still felt in this edition. Jackson-Via Elementary School's Karyl Reynolds, media specialist, and Tracy Snead, first-grade teacher, contributed their special expertise in the development of bibliographies and literature searches, as well as their friendship and support. Our colleagues in the Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Project—Jeannie Steele, Kurt Meredith, Scott Walter, Donna Ogle, and Alan Crawford-along with 70 volunteer teacher educators and hundreds of international colleagueshave deeply affected our thinking on reading-to-learn issues.

We are grateful for the careful reading and insightful criticism of our fifth edition manuscript reviewers: Mariam Jean Dreher, University of Maryland; Lee A. Dubert, Boise State University; Ann Harris, Austin Peay State University; Ellen Jampole, SUNY Cordand; Barbara Laster, Towson University; David C. Little, Samford University; Patrick McCabe, Nova Southeastern University; Richard Osterberg, California State University, Fresno; Barbara Pugh, California State University, Bakersfield; Mark Sadoski, Texas A&M University; and Rebecca Swearingen, Southwest Missouri State University. We also gratefully acknowledge the many helpful suggestions we have received since the first edition appeared from the reviewers and users of previous editions.

We also extend our heartfelt thanks to our editor, Virginia Blanford, and her staff at Addison Wesley Longman; our editor on previous editions, Christopher Dennison; and to Susan Free and the production staff at York Production Services.

Finally, we are grateful to our students and colleagues at Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Mary Baldwin College, and the Charlottesville, Virginia, Public Schools. Many, many people helped make this book what it is; we acknowledge their many influences with gratitude and offer our work to you with pride.

Jean Wallace Gillet
Charles Temple

Read More Show Less

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